Stressed Words & Unstressed Words in a Sentence What is a syllable? A word part and the basic unit of English rhythm What is a stressed syllable? baNAAAAna Syllable 1 Syllable 2 Syllable 3 (short) (long) (short)
Stressed Syllables & Unstressed Syllables Stressed syllables are strong syllables. Unstressed syllables are weak syllables. Stressed syllables: • are long • have a pitch change • have full vowel sounds. Unstressed syllables: • are short • often have a reduced vowel sound.
Strong and weak syllables • The vowel in a weak syllable tends to be shorter, of lower intensity and different in quality. • ‘father’: the second syllable is shorter than the first, is less loud and has a vowel that cannot occur in strong syllables. • ‘bottle’: the weak second syllable contains no vowel at all, but consists entirely of the consonant /l/. We call this a syllabic consonant.
Different types of weak syllables • The schwa • a -- attend, character, barracks, again, ballad, necklace, workaday, workable, elephant • ar -- particular, molar, monarchy • ate -- intimate, accurate, desolate • o -- tomorrow, potato, carrot • or -- forget, ambassador, opportunity • e -- settlement, violet, postmen • er --perhaps, stronger, superman • u -- autumn, support, halibut • ough -- thorough, borough • ous -- gracious, callous
Any English vowel letter can be pronounced with the schwa // allow a firemen e possible i // command o support u
Sentence Stress • What to stress in a sentence? • 1.Information words are usually stressed: nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. • 2.Unstressed words are usually function words like articles, pronouns, possessives, prepositions, auxiliary verbs, and conjunctions.
Information words and function words Information words: nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. They give information about who, what, when, where, why,how They express the main idea or content of the phrase or sentence. They carry the message and therefore usually stressed.
Function words Unstressed words are usually function words like articles, pronouns, possessives, prepositions, auxiliary verbs, and conjunctions. These words connect the information words to form grammatical sentences.
If you stress all the words in an utterance, you may sound unpleasant or even cause misunderstanding because 1. You are giving too much information, and 2. English speakers usually stress all words only when they are impatient or angry.
Strong forms & Weak forms • Strong forms: stressed forms • Weak forms: unstressed forms
1. I am a student. /m/ Simple statement I am a student. /æm/ Not a teacher or anything else 2. Give him a seat. / həm / Simple statement Give him a seat. /him/ Not anybody else 3. He comes from America. /frəm/ Simple statement He comes from America. /frɔm/ Not anywhere else. 4. The child can swim. / kən/ Simple statement The child can swim. / kæn/ He surely can swim.
Read and Practise • a boy /ә/ an apple /n/ as usual /әz/ sooner or later /әr/ • pen and later /n/ more and more /r/ sink or swim /әr/ • He is /z/ as /әz/ tall as /әz/ his brother. • Can you send him /im/ a message?
弱读现象 辅音+辅音：在一句话中，前一个单词以辅音结尾，后一个单词以辅音开头，后一个辅音发音，前一个不发音 Help me Bad boy I don’t like them. Sit still Give me a hand
弱读现象的特例 特例[h]击穿连读----"h"被击穿连读:即一个辅音与一个以"h"字母打头的单词结合时,[h]音被击穿,辅音与"h"后面的音连读.例如: for h\im ask h\im let h\im reach h\im tell h\im tell h\er
变幻莫测的变音现象 • 听力最大的陷阱 • 半元音[ j ]的学问 • would you [d]+[j]=[d3] • boss you miss you [s]+[j] • aren't you [t]+[j] • because you [z]+[j]= • That's your [ts]+[j] • sends you [dz]+[j]=[d3]
句子重音 Sentence Stress句子重音的一般规则实词重读 虚词不重读名词 一般都重读There is a 'book on the 'desk.My 'sister 'put up a 'picture on the 'wall.'John 'wants to 'see the 'teacher after 'class.An 'elephant is an 'animal.
一些含义较广，本身没有很确切内容的名词,如thing, person, place, 或指一大类人或事物的名词，如 man, woman, fellow, time, ship,前面有修饰语缩小其范围时，这类名词通常不重读'That’s a 'nice thing.(比较： 'That’s a 'nice 'picture.)He’s an 'easy person to 'get a'long with.He’s the 'right man for the 'job.It’s al'ready 'lunch time.(比较; It’s 'time for 'lunch.)
代词常重读的代词有 1．指示代词'This is 'not what I 'mean.'That 'isn’t the one I 'asked for.'Do you 'like (')these 'flowers?但如指示代词前后都有重音时，该指示代词可失去重音'How do you 'like those 'little ones?'Who 'wrote this 'interesting 'story?
2. 名词性物主代词'Yours is 'much 'nicer than 'mine.The 'red one is 'his.但在双重所有格中，物主代词往往不重读I’m 'writing to a 'friend of mine.3. 强调代词I 'saw it my'self.The 'man him'self 'told me so.4．疑问代词'Who are you 'talking to?'What can I 'do for you?'Who 'came to 'see you this 'morning?
不重读的代词有：人称代词，反身代词，物主代词（形容词性），相互代词，关系代词He 'hasn’t 'seen my 'brother yet.He 'hurt himself when he was 'playing 'football.They 'often 'help each other.The 'girl who 'spoke to you just 'now is my 'sister.
形容词（包括分词作形容词）一般都应重读 数词一般都应重读The 'streets are 'wide, 'clean and 'beautiful.'This 'narrow 'valley was the 'scene of a 'famous 'battle.His 'first daughter is fif'teen.It’s a 'dull and disap'pointing film.'That’s ex'citing news.The 'worried man 'entered the 'crowded 'street.He 'bought 'ten 'cups and 'I bought only 'four.
冠词一般都不重读He 'lives in a 'house 'not 'far from the 'school.It's an 'hour’s 'drive from the 'old 'station.The 'man 'over there is my 'brother.An 'elephant is an 'animal.
动词 主要动词，或称实意动词、行为动词（notional verb）都要重读(be、have 除外)He ‘takes a ’walk after ‘supper ’every ‘day.’Don’t for‘get your ’homework.I sup‘pose you ’know him.非限定动词一般也都要重读不定式We de‘cided to ’start the ‘next ’day.分词 We 'sat at the 'desk 'writing a 'letter.动名词It’s 'no 'use 'asking him about 'that.
助动词和情态动词与not构成的缩略式要重读I 'don’t want to 'go there to'day.He 'wasn’t sur'prised when I 'told him the 'news.We 'can’t 'stay any 'longer.'Don’t you think you 'shouldn’t say 'such things?We must 'do it 'now, 'mustn’t we?cannot不缩写成can’t时，重音也在can 上I 'cannot agree 'with him.
Do 用于肯定句中表示强调时，总是重读的I 'do hope 'this will be ef'fective.He 'does need your 'help.We 'did warn you be'fore.'Do 'drop 'in when you are in 'Xuzhou.
不重读的动词助动词He did 'not work 'hard for the e'xam.We were im'pressed by their a'chievements.'Much has been 'said a'bout it.They will be sur'prised at 'that.情态动词He should be 'criticized for 'doing 'that.'Mary could 'do it 'better than 'Herbert. I must 'go 'now.'Who can 'answer this 'question?
动词 be(是),have(有)一般不重读I have 'so many 'things to 'do to'day.'Few 'people had 'TV 'sets in 'those 'days.The 'key was 'in the 'box.以上几类通常不重读的动词用于简短回答，或其后省略了主要动词时，要重读; 用于一般疑问句句首有时重读，但在比较随便的谈话中不必重读 (')Have you any 'brothers and 'sisters? 'Yes, I 'have.(')Are you a 'student? 'Yes, I 'am.(')Can you 'come this after'noon? Yes, I 'can.He 'said 'more than he 'should at the 'meeting. I 'don’t want to 'go there, but I 'must.
副词一般都重读They 'came 'back 'early 'yesterday. 'Where did you 'buy it? 'Why do you 'come? You 'meet 'people 'everywhere.I’ve 'never 'heard of 'such a thing be'fore. Per'haps she’ll ar'rive to'night.'Tell him to 'come 'in. A 'car 'dashed 'past. 'Thank you for 'coming to 'see me 'off.
但关系副词不重读He 'visited the 'small 'village where he was 'born.They 'came 'right at the 'time when we 'needed their 'help.'This is the 'reason why they 'failed.介词 单音节介词一般都不重读'All but 'one of the 'family are at 'home.'How 'far is it from 'Paris to 'London? 'What are you 'looking at? 'That’s what I was 'thinking of.
多音节的介词常重读，但也可不重读I’ll 'do it (')after 'lunch. He 'finished the 'article (')during the 'holidays.The 'man 'walked a(')long the 'street.He 'searched a(')mong the 'papers. I for'got 'all a(')bout it. I have 'nothing to 'say con(')cerning this 'problem. 'Put it 'opposite the 'door.
在不重读的连系动词be或人称代词后，不论是单音节或多音节介词都重读They’re 'by the 'window. He was 'in the 'sitting-room. Is it 'near the 'post office? The 'teacher was 'with us at the 'picnic. It was 'during the 'interval.He was be'side himself with 'rage. They are be'hind the 'door.
介词在句首时常可重读'On his 'way 'home he 'met an 'old 'friend. 'In the 'room they 'found a 'little 'boy. 'Under the 'tree 'stands a 'tall man.
连接词 单一的并列连接词（包括关联连接词both … and neither…nor等）和从属连词都不重读 He 'came and 'spoke to us. I 'saw it but 'didn’t 'read it. 'Let’s 'run or we’ll be 'late. 'That 'takes both 'time and 'energy. Neither 'you nor 'I can 'solve the 'problem. I sug'gest that we 'give 'up the 'plan. He was 'angry with me because I was 'late. The pro'fessor was 'busy 'writing when I 'went to 'see him.
We 'took the 'taxi to the 'station so (that) we could be in 'time for the 'train. She 'didn’t ar'range the 'chairs as I 'told her. 'Put it where it can 'easily be 'seen. He 'wants to 'see you before you 'leave. She in'sisted on 'going, though I 'told her 'not to. They were disap'pointed whereas 'we were de'lighted. You 'can’t under'stand it until you 'read it to the 'end.
连接词词组 其中重要的词要重读还有一些意味较强的连接词也要重读If 'only I 'knew how to 'do it. He’ll 'help us on con'dition that we 'trust him. We’ll 'start to'morrow 'even if it 'rains. They have 'never 'met 'ever since '19'80. The 'meeting will be'gin as 'soon as the 'guests 'come. You’ll suc'ceed so 'long as you 'work 'hard. It’s 'such a 'pity that you 'can’t 'come.
He 'spoke 'so 'fast that I could 'hardly 'follow him.Will you 'try a'gain sup'posing you 'fail? I must 'go there al'though it is 'raining. The 'school bus will 'leave di'rectly the'bell 'rings. You can 'never suc'ceed un'less you 'work 'hard.
从句放在主句前面时，处于句首的连接词常重读（that除外）'When he 'comes I’ll intro'duce him to you. 'After I’ve 'finished it I’ll 'show it to you. 'As I was 'waiting for the 'bus, it 'suddenly be'gan to 'rain. 但That we can 'do it with'out him is ab'surd.
连接代词who (whom, whose) what, which和连接副词when, where, how, why可以重读，也可以不重读I 'wonder 'who 'that was. 'Ask him 'which is 'better. I 'don’t 'know 'how they 'are. I 'don’t 'know how 'things are in 'their 'school. I’m 'not sure 'when he’s 'coming. I 'can’t under'stand 'why he re'fuses to 'go. Do you 'see what I 'mean? He 'doesn’t know 'what he should 'do 'next.
感叹词感叹词是表示某种感情的自然一般都重读'Ah! 'Oh! 'Ugh![‘uh] 'Eh? 'Fancy! 'Goodness!'Nonsense! Hel'lo! In'deed! 'How 'awful!但如果后面紧跟一个有强重音的词，单音节的感叹词可以不重读，但音调很高Ah ''no! Oh ''well! Oh ''dear!
不合乎语句重音一般规律的例外情况任何本来有句子重音的词，如果上文刚出现过，第二次提到时一般不应重读--'How 'many 'times have you 'been there? --'Three times. The 'boy 'shouted to the 'other boys. --They 'want 'strong men. --'Very 'well. I 'am strong.'Study as 'Lenin studied. A 'new com'mittee has been 'set 'up and 'Dr 'Li is 'on the committee.
名词 street 在街名中不重读'Oxford Street 'Downing Street 'Eighth Street ‘Wall Street但road, avenue, lane, way, hill, town, park,palace等词在街名地名中都要重读'York 'Road 'West 'Lake 'Hyde 'Park 'Buckingham 'Palace 'Hampton 'Court
一个名词受另一个名词（或形容词）修饰时，如修饰语与别的词形成对比时，或两个词意义上联系很紧密时，被修饰的名词不重读，只重读前面的修饰语'railway journey 坐火车旅行（区别于坐汽车或飞机旅行） 'pleasure trip 旅游（区别于因事旅行）'high school 中学'safety razor 安全剃刀'life-saving apparatus 救生装置'door handle 'tennis ball 'camping ground 'golf club 'violin string exami'nation paper
指示代词this, that, these, those有时没有很强的指示意味，其意义很接近于冠词the，特别是当其修饰的名词前面已提到时，这些指示代词不重读He 'managed this 'matter 'wonderfully. It is 'necessary to 'take these 'measures. He 'couldn’t 'bear the 'gaze of those 'eyes.在this 'morning, this 'after'noon, this 'evening 等词组中，this 不重读
such 后面跟有强调的词时不重读such a 'curious 'shape such 'quantities of 'wood如果后面的词不可能重时，则重读 such'Such a thing should 'never have 'happened.副词so在 think so, do so等词组里不重读I 'think so. I 'didn’t 'say so. I 'believe so. 'Who 'told you to 'do so?
副词so, now, then用来在语气上连接上下文时，不重读So he 'went into the 'garden. Now 'listen to me 'carefully. Then 'don’t for'get to 'write to me after you ar'rive there.
某些插入语不须重读I’m a'fraid he’s 'not 'coming.He’s 'not 'coming, I’m afraid.'Please 'sit 'down. 'Sit 'down, please.He 'said, “I’m 'sorry.”“I’m 'sorry,” he said.One作为数词要重读，但用作代词时不重读'That’s a 'good one. 'How are the 'little ones? You’ve 'got the 'wrong one, 'I want the 'green one.