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Chapter 3. Methodological context. Spatial analysis as a process. Problem formulation Data gathering Exploratory analysis Hypothesis formulation Modelling and testing Consultation and review Reporting and implementation. Analytical methodologies.

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chapter 3

Chapter 3

Methodological context

www.spatialanalysisonline.com

spatial analysis as a process
Spatial analysis as a process
  • Problem formulation
  • Data gathering
  • Exploratory analysis
  • Hypothesis formulation
  • Modelling and testing
  • Consultation and review
  • Reporting and implementation

www.spatialanalysisonline.com

analytical methodologies
Analytical methodologies
  • Mitchell (2005) Draper et al (2005)

www.spatialanalysisonline.com

analytical methodologies ppdac
Analytical methodologies - PPDAC
  • After Mackay & Oldford (2002)

www.spatialanalysisonline.com

ppdac
PPDAC
  • Views spatial analysis in a broader context
  • Model is highly iterative
  • Analysis is just part of the process
  • Considers the process flow in reverse
  • Spatial is special – extending the PPDAC methodology …

www.spatialanalysisonline.com

ppdac6
PPDAC
  • Extended PPDAC for spatial analysis
    • Spatial focus – spatial relationships and spatial dependence
    • Spatio-temporal focus
    • Failure to meet classical statistical criteria
    • Pattern and process relationship
    • Spatial data sourcing and quality

www.spatialanalysisonline.com

ppdac problem phase
PPDAC – Problem phase
  • Problem definition
    • Clear definition of problem/project and (client) expectations is paramount
  • Desk research as part of initial process
  • Identification of specific spatial issues:
    • spatial (and statistical) scale factors
    • spatial arrangement factors
    • data availability and quality
    • spatial grouping issues
      • ecological fallacy, atomistic fallacy

www.spatialanalysisonline.com

ppdac plan phase
PPDAC – Plan phase
  • Nature of project
  • Costing requirements
  • Decision-support requirements
  • Public participation issues
  • Operational requirements
  • Timing and critical dates
  • Funding and resourcing
  • Feasibility and risk analysis
  • Client expectations

www.spatialanalysisonline.com

ppdac plan phase cont
PPDAC – Plan phase – cont.
  • Specifications and standards
  • Data components required
  • Data sourcing and augmenting
  • Sampling, populations and inference
  • Adopting multiple approaches
  • Seeking robustness
  • Testing/simulating the process flow
  • Handling exceptions & rare events
  • Re-examining the problem specification

www.spatialanalysisonline.com

ppdac data phase
PPDAC – Data phase
  • Data quality & sourcing issues
    • Quality
    • Cost
    • Licensing
    • Availability
    • Completeness & consistency
    • Timeliness
    • Detail/resolution
    • Intangible/qualitative data

www.spatialanalysisonline.com

ppdac data phase11
PPDAC – Data phase
  • Data quality & GIS tools - examples
    • Boundary definition and density computation
    • Missing data handling and masking
    • Classification
    • Data transformation
    • Breakline handling
    • Error mapping
    • Simulation

www.spatialanalysisonline.com

ppdac data phase12
PPDAC – Data phase
  • Changing context
    • Spatial Data Infrastructures
    • Geoportals
    • Metadata
    • New data capture tools
    • Changes in data visualisation & usage
    • Interdisciplinary nature of geospatial analysis

www.spatialanalysisonline.com

ppdac analysis phase
PPDAC – Analysis Phase
  • Simplicity and parsimony
  • Exploratory analysis & visualisation
  • Interpretation of spatial patterns
  • Construction of hypotheses
  • Build-test-criticise ‘model’ cycle
  • Developing preliminary conclusions
  • Match to expectations?

www.spatialanalysisonline.com

ppdac analysis phase14
PPDAC – Analysis Phase
  • Types of model
  • Mathematical/Statistical models
  • Cartographic modeling
  • Flow models
  • Micro-scale modeling... etc

www.spatialanalysisonline.com

ppdac analysis phase15
PPDAC – Analysis Phase
  • Simple dynamic cartographic model

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ppdac analysis phase16
PPDAC – Analysis Phase
  • Sample risk assessment model output

www.spatialanalysisonline.com

ppdac conclusion phase
PPDAC – Conclusion Phase
  • Expectations on delivery met?
  • Simplicity again
  • Clear/high quality visualisation
  • Identify and report strengths, weaknesses and possible sources of error
  • Recommendations
  • Future actions

www.spatialanalysisonline.com

ppdac final comments
PPDAC – Final comments
  • Work through and specify each model step before commencing – test out ideas
  • Identify risk areas and revisit PPDAC elements as required
  • Confirm overall programme and deliverables with ‘client’
  • Manage risks and changes

www.spatialanalysisonline.com