Central AmericaPhysical geography • -Rugged land scape • and lack of water • routes make travel • difficult in this region • Vegetation: • Most of the regions savanna • ecosystem, comprised of grasslands • and large trees, along the • coasts has been cleared and • replaced with plantations and • ranches. • Psychical Features: • Central America is • aisthmus, or a narrow • strip of land that • connects two larger • land areas. • -A chain of mountains separates the pacific and the Caribbean Coastal • Plains. • -A few short rivers flow • through Central America.
Central AmericaNatural resources • *Best resources are its land and climate* • -Great for tourism (regions biggest industry) • Agricultural resources: • Coffee • Bananas • Sugarcane • Cotton • Timber • -Few mineral and energy resources
Central Americaclimate • Climate: • -Humid • tropical/tropical • savanna year round • Summer: • Rainy • Hurricanes • Winter: • Dry • -Mountainous parts of central • America are covered with dense • cloud forests. • Cloud forest: moist, high elevation tropical forest where low clouds are common.
Atlas Worksheet • Individually you are going to work on • the atlas worksheet using the atlas’s at • your table. If you do not finish it in class, it • will be for homework.
Central AmericaHistory • Early History: • Mayans • -AD 250 built large cities with pyramids and temples • The Spanish: • -15oo’s Central America came under European control (Spain and Britain) Spain claimed most of the region. • What is a colony? • A colony is a territory inhabited and controlled by people from a foreign land. • -Established large plantations and crops to grow tobacco and sugarcane. • -Central American Indians worked on plantations as well as enslaved Africans brought in by the Europeans.
Central AmericaHistory: Central America Since Independence • 1800’s: • -In 1812 Spanish colonies of Central America declared independence • from Spain. • -For most countries in central America independence brought little change; the Spanish helped to establish an economy that continued to profit from the plantation crops that were already established.
Central America Today • Today: • -In the mid 1990’s the U.S. based fruit company came in and took control over the banana industry and become the largest exporter in that region for bananas as well as the largest employer. • -However foreign company involvement in Central America was resented by many since they came in and took control over their resources. In the late 1990’s demands for reforms led to struggles in Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. Only in recent years have these countries reached peace. • .
What is central America like today? • With your table you are going to read the section assigned to you and summarize your • section writing down 3 key points about your groups country that you want to share with • the class. You with have 10-15 to do this with your group. Good luck • Pg # 196-197 • Guatemala • Belize • Honduras • El Salvador • Nicaragua • Costa Rica • Panama
Central AmericaCulture • *Central America’s colonial industry has influenced its culture; the regions people, languages, religion and festivals reflect both Spanish and native practices.* • The People: • -Most of the people in Central America are Mestizosor • people of mixed European and Indian ancestry. • The language: • - Many people still speak their native Indian languages however in places that were colonized they may speak the language of that nation not their native language. • Ex: In Belize the official language is English because it was colonized by England. • -In most countries however the official language is Spanish due to the Spanish colonization of Central America.
Central AmericaCulture • The Religion: • --Roman Catholicism, the religion most practiced in this region, was brought to the region by • Europeans.Spanish Missionaries taught the Indians about Catholicism. • -Religion influences celebrations in towns throughout the region. • Examples: To celebrate special saints days, they have feasts. • During Easter some towns decorate whole streets with flowers. • Festivals: • -Festivals include; music, dancing in the streets (parades), colorful costumes that represent their • Culture. • - They eat traditional foods such as corn, tomatoes, hot peppers and cacao(or chocolate). • -Many festivals celebrate religious holidays and days of importance.
What and where is the Panama Canal? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-uPCQy32tGg • Experience Panama- Seven Wonders Of The World- episode 5: The Panama Canal by • BBC
The Caribbean Islands Chapter 8
The Caribbean Physical Geography • Climate: • -Tropical Climate • Rivers: • - The largerislands of the Caribbean have rivers. • Hispaniola hasfourmajor rivers; Yaque del Norte/ Yuna River/ Yaque del Sur/ Aribontie River • Cuba has three major rivers; Rio cauto/RiocAlmendares/Rio Yurimi • Mountains: • -Many of the Caribbean islands have mountainous areas, • Puerto Rico and Jamaica are known to be the most mountainous islands.
The CaribbeanPhysical Geography • Beaches: • -Warm tropical weather as well as access to beaches forsun and surf on every island has helped the Caribbean islands thrive as touristdestinations. • Salt Flats: • - Salt flats occur when salt water evaporates, leaving behind mass amounts of salt. • *Puerto Rico is known for having huge salt flats along it’s coasts*
The CaribbeanEarly History • Christopher Columbus: • -Sailed from Spain in 1942 ,discovering the Caribbean Islands (not America). • -He thought he reached the Indies, or Islands near India. For that reason he called the Caribbean Islands the West Indies and the people that lived their Indians. • Colonies: • - In the 1600’s and 1700’s the English, French, Dutch and the Danish established colonies on the islands. • -Built huge sugar cane plantations, this required many workers, so Europeans brought Africans from Africa to work as slaves. • -Soon the number of Africans outnumbered the Europeans on the islands.
The Caribbean’sEarly History • Independence: • Toussaint-L’Ouverture(Too-Sahn Loo-Ver-Toor) • -Led a slave revolt that helped Haiti to win independence from France in 1804. Along with independence came freedom for slaves in Haiti. From this ideas of independence spread throughout the Caribbean. • 1800’s -1900’s: • -Dominican Republic gained independence. • -United States won Cuba from Spain but then Spain gained independence in 1902. • -Other Caribbean countries did not gain independence for 40 more years after WWII. • -Some countries are still not fully independent countries. • Ex: Martinique and Guadeloupe are French possessions
The Caribbean Culture • People: • -Most islanders are descended from Europeans or from Africanswho came to the region as slaves, or a mix of the two. • Languages: • - Languages spoken reflect the colonial heritage; Spanish English or French as well as a mix of many European and African languages are spoken on many islands. • Dialect= regional variety of a language • Ex: Haitians speak French Creole, Creole is a dialect
The Caribbean Culture • Religion: • -Regions pasts’ also reflect the religions people practice. Former French and Spanish territories have large numbers of Catholics. People on the islands are mainly Catholicor a blend of Catholicism and traditional African religions. • Festivals and Food: • -Celebrate a variety of holidays • -Biggest and most wide spread festival is Carnival. • *Carnival is a time of feasts and celebration before the Christian season of Lent begins. • * Big parades with fancy costumes and live music and dancing. • -Food and cooking also reflect the regions past. • Ex: Foods carried from Africa on slave ships such as okra and yams are popular throughout the islands. • Curry was brought to the region by people from India who came as plantation workers after slavery ended.
Exit Slip • Fill out the Central America and Caribbean Island exit slip and turn it in to the bin. If • you do not finish it in class it is homework