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Romanian National Oceanographic and Environmental Data Center. Viorel MALCIU Luminita BUGA Gabriel GANEA. Forth ODINBlackSea Steering Group Meeting 11 – 15 September, Sevastopol, UKRAINE. NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR MARINE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT “GRIGORE ANTIPA”.

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Romanian National Oceanographic and Environmental Data Center


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    1. Romanian National Oceanographic and Environmental Data Center Viorel MALCIU Luminita BUGA Gabriel GANEA Forth ODINBlackSea Steering Group Meeting 11 – 15 September, Sevastopol, UKRAINE NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR MARINE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT “GRIGORE ANTIPA” Blvd. Mamaia 300, RO – 900581 Constanta, ROMANIATel: +40 241 543288, 540870 Fax: +40 241 831274 E-mail: incdmct@datanet.ro

    2. Romanian National Oceanographic and Environmental Data Center (NOEDC) is designated as a NODC in the context of IOC-IODE system. It was established in 2007 as a Department of National Institute of Marine Research and Development “Grigore Antipa”. The centre is officially recognized as Romanian Oceanographic Data Centre, replacing former Designated National Agency and is included in the list of world oceanographic data centers of IOC/IODE.

    3. COUNCIL OF ADMINISTRATION SCIENTIFIC COUNCIL DIRECTORY COMMITTEE GENERAL DIRECTOR ECONOMIC DIRECTOR SCIENTIFIC DIRECTOR TECHNICAL DIRECTOR DEPARTAMENTOCEANOGRAPHY DEPARTAMENT MARKETING MANAGEMENT Projects TECHNICAL DEPARTMENT (nava, auto) ECONOMIC DEPARTMENT DEPARTAMENT ECOLOGY AND ENVIONMENT PROTECTION INFORMATIONAL SYSTEM COMPARTMENT BIROU HUMAN RESOURCES DEPARTAMENT INVESTITIONS COMPARTIMENT INVENTI DEPARTAMENT MARINE LIVING RESOURCES JURIDIC COMPARTMENT DEPARTAMENT ADMINISTRTIV COMPARTIMENT DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION INTERNAL AUDIT COMPARTMENT COMPARTMENT WORK PROTECTION NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL CENTERS LMA PROFESIONAL FORMATION COMPARTMENT NATONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DATA CENTER SECRETARIAT CNZC SECRETARIAT CNRO

    4. Personnel: 1 manager 1 assistant manager 1 administrator IT 2 operators Capacity building: • Available existing capacities, simultaneously with the NIMRD’s general services: • - the external data lines (leased line, FO, bandwidth ~4Mbps Internet granted; • the existing communication datacenter (routers, switches, infrastructure servers, C class IP address space PA in administration, Internet visibility active services (name, routing, etc.); • - the existing internal (physical and logical) computer network; • - the existing application servers and workstations; • - for servers, the used hardware /software platform is Open Source based: Linux (openSUSE or SLES) /Apache /PHP /PostgreSQL – MySQL, with time demonstrated stability, installed on Intel architectures; • - for workstations, the used hardware /software platform is Intel P4 class /Microsoft Windows based.

    5. Being the technical operator of the marine monitoring network (physical, chemical and biological) and for coastal erosion survey, NIMRD holds a comprehensive volume of marine data and information (stored in National Oceanographic and Environmental Data Center - NOEDC). The main area of interest is Black Sea with special attention to the western part of Black Sea. The national data collection of the NOEDC consists of:

    6. Presently Romanian NOEDC collates data and metadata from: • National Institute for Marine Research and Development “Grigore Antipa” • Maritime Hydrographic Directorate (MHD) • National Institute of Marine Geology and Geo-Ecology (GeoEcoMar) • Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve Authority (DDBRA)

    7. Considering the ODIN objectives regarding increasing the transnational data exchange capacity of the national NODC’s and in order to contribute to the Ocean Data Portal system, NIMRD, as NODC, have proceeded to install (as we assumed to) the required infrastructure. At NIMRD site, the E2EDM Data Provider software is up and running (installed and configured) since Fri, April 24, 2009.

    8. The E2EDM Data Provider software is installed: • on an appropriate dedicated physical machine in the NIMRD’s server room; • have assigned a FQDN name in the NIMRD’s name space and • benefits of a dedicated private IP address from the NIMRD’s PA IP address space. The coordinates and the appropriate paths are proper communicated since the end of the installation, setup and configuration process.

    9. NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR MARINE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT “GRIGORE ANTIPA” as Romanian NODC is partner in: SEADATANET Black Sea SCENE EMODNET pilots _ Chemical lot }based on SeaDataNet network of NODC’s Romanian NOEDC is adopting SeaDataNet data policy which “is consistent with, and in the spirit of, national and international policies and laws” and “is intended to be fully compatible with the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on public access to environmental information, the INSPIRE Directive, IOC, ICES, WMO, GCOS, GEOSS and CLIVAR data principles.”

    10. Partners GeoEcoMar MHD DDBRA NODC NIMRD Tools CMS CMS, MIKADO CMS CMS CMS Services (directories) EDMED EDMERP, EDMO, CDI, DQC EDIOS CSR Scientist, Bibliography, SED Coordinators, Developers BODC MARIS BODC BSH-DOD RIHMI-WDC Scheme of metadata / data coordination for ROMANIA

    11. Concerning the SeaDataNet and BlackSeaScene Download Manager, the software packages is taking the same profit of the NIMRD’s IT existing possibilities as the E2EDM Data Provider software did: • appropriate dedicated machine in the NIMRD’s server room, • assigned FQDN name in the NIMRD’s name space and • dedicated private IP address from the NIMRD’s PA IP address space. • The operational coordinates and the appropriate paths are also proper communicated. • The Black Sea Scene Download Manager is in production state.

    12. Formats: Present: Data: xls, text, ODV 4 Metadata: adopted ISO 19115 In work: All data ODV format Data till 1996: free After 1996: on request Present DatabaseStructure

    13. There was upgraded the existing the SDN Download Manager, in order to work in the respective oceanographic data exchange environment and the adjacent projects (e.g. Upgrade Black Sea Scene) It is installed on a stand-alone machine, in the NIMRD’s external DMZ. It will be moved on the new infrastructure (enterprise-class servers, etc.). In the next slide is shown a global network schematic.

    14. Problems: • lack of redundant (backup) Internet line (in order to increase data availability; • limited professional storage capacity; • limited data backup capacity (existing storage capacity is assigned mainly to the working areas – see above & previous slide); • delays in moving the systems to the new infrastructure.

    15. It was further noted that there are substantial differences in granularity between SeaDataNet and ODP. SeaDataNet considers each profile as a separate data set. ODP allows flexible setting of granularity (e.g. a cruise, map, product, profile, etc, can all be a data set). Participants involved in both SeaDataNet and ODP called for a single software application that can be used to register data in either system. If portals such as ODP and SeaDataNet are populated, the problem of duplication will become a serious issue.

    16. Existing Infrastructure for the Integrated Monitoring System Operational oceanography: Tsunami Early Warning System, Sea level, Sea surface temperature (SST), Air pressure FTP Data transmission, every minute NIMRD premises: storage, data QC and transfer NIMRD ISP Gateway Gateway Constanta MedGLOSS station no 28 UPGRADED INFRASTRUCTURE: Intelligent Digiquartz Depth Sensor for sea level and water temperature; SETRA Atmospheric pressure sensor; National Instrunents pre-processor interface; GPS for accurate time stamping, Computer with LabView DAQ system, local storage and NearRealTime data transmission interface Data acquisition, storage and transfer every minute Local premises ISP Gateway Gateway

    17. Sea Level online record sample(s) sent to the IOC Sea Level Monitoring facilities

    18. There was aquired a specific Internet domain name, nodc.ro, for the Romanian National Oceanographic and Environmental Data Centre (NOEDC), in order to operate a specific web site on the NIMRD’s infrastructure, http://www.nodc.ro/. The web site is currently under development.

    19. There was designed and setup a public information system concerning Black Sea marine information in the Constanta area, with development capacities, at the NIMRD’s headquarters in within ECOOP and MyOCEAN projects.

    20. Existing operational oceanography: oceanographic forecasthttp://www.rmri.ro/RMRI/Forecasts/ForecastsRO.html Prognozaoceanografică Cunoaşterea dinamicii parametrilor fizico-chimici Marea Neagră (On the site of Ministry of Environment and Forests)

    21. Existingoperational oceanography: sea currents and waves in the coastal area For sea current and waves monitoring in the coastal area, three Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers ADCP Workhorse Sentinel 600 Hz are used in fixed, underwater measurements locations or in oceanographic cruises. Data are used for oceanographic forecast as well

    22. Operational deep sea oceanography • Romanian operational oceanographic system is supposed to answer to: • Global Monitoring and Environment Security (GMES), having as a main component an integrated system for ocean monitoring and crises management; • Marine Strategy Framework Directive – water quality monitoring, biodiversity protection, marine living resources protection, environment information system; • INSPIRE (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community), the component for waters - WISE (Water Information System for Europe) – coordination of data and information exchange; • European Maritime Strategy – Green Book regarding Maritime Policies where one can find the need for a European network for observation and data regarding marine environment.

    23. NEW SEAWATCH SYSTEM FOR OCEANOGRAPHIC FORECAST (draft project to be submitted to INNOVATION NORWAY) Danube monitoring stations (Sulina, Sf. Gheorghe) • The SEAWATCH system has three main parts: • -Real time observations from oceanographic and river buoys; • -Data from other sources (e.g. coastal stations, research ships) and numerical models.  Data • management and forecasting services; • -Data and information distribution. Autonomous oceanographic buoys

    24. List of the parameters provided by the oceanographic buoys

    25. RIVERWATCH system The RIVERWATCH system is an integrated, real-time, monitoring and information system providing forecasting, warning and decision support which can improve the resource/emergency management capabilities of river basin authorities, government agencies, industry and others responsible for water supply, power generation, agriculture, waterway transport, waste disposal, public health and water quality. Main applications of RIVERWATCH include: Boundary conditions for modeling, forecast Pollution control Flood early warning Irrigation scheduling/operation River navigation Water allocation and drought management Integrated river basin management

    26. CURRENT STATE AND EVOLUTION TRENDS OF THE ROMANIAN BLACK SEA COASTALENVIRONMENT IN 2010 V. Abaza, L. Alexandrov, L. Boicenco, A. Bologa, D. Diaconeasa, C. Dumitrache, O. Dumitrescu, C. Ispas-Sava, L. Lazăr, V. Malciu, R. Mateescu, V. Maximov, D. Micu, V. Niță, A. Oros, E. Stoica, F. Timofte, D. Țigănuș, D. Vasiliu, T. Zaharia Annex 1 S. Nicolaev - Director T.Zaharia - Scientific Director National Institute for Marine Research and Development NIMRD „Grigore Antipa“ Constanța România, RO-900581 Constanța CT-03, 300 Mamaia Blvd., e-mail: office@alpha.rmri.ro - web: http://www.rmri.ro/ 27

    27. COASTAL PROCESSES Coastal processes had the following percentage for the spring season 2009 - 2010: - erosion 61%; relative stability 17%; accretion 22%. The share of coastal processes (erosion/relative stability/accretion)on the coastal beaches Năvodari-Vama Veche, spring 2009-2010 • In autumn 2009 -2010, the share of coastal processes for the Năvodari - Vama Veche area was: • - erosion 53%; • relative stability 29%; • accretion 18%. The relative stability increased from 17%, in spring (after the cold season, when the beach erodes), to 29%, in autumn (after the hot season, when the beach rebuilds itself). The share of coastal processes (erosion/relative stability/accretion) on the coastal beaches Năvodari-Vama Veche, autumn 2009-2010 28

    28. SEA LEVEL 60 cm 50 40 30 20 10 0 Ian Febr Mart Apr Mai Iun Iul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec -10 Maximum monthly mean values 1933 - 2009 -20 Monthly mean values 1933 - 2009 Monthly mean values 2010 -30 Minimum monthly mean values 1933 - 2009 Sea level, as a state indicator of the coastal zone, emphasized a constant positive deviation during the entire year, except for September and October. Except for this period, in 2010, the sea level average values overlap the long term monthly maxima. The annual average exceeded by 23.5 cm the long term annual average (1933 - 2009) and thus the annual average of 2010 becomes the highest in the last 77 years. 29

    29. General indicators TRANSPARENCY Variation interval 0.5÷6.5m Transitional waters - 1m average, st.dev. 0.7m Coastal waters - 3m average, st.dev. 1.6m Marine waters - 3.2m average, std.dev. 1.3m PHYSICO-CHEMICALINDICATORS 3.5 3 2.5 2 Transparency [m] 1.5 1 0.5 0 Marine waters Transitionalwaters Coastal waters Medial (m) St. Dev.(m) Transparency averages in Romanian littoral water bodies, 2010 The minimum values ​​were below 2 m, the allowable value for both the ecological state, as well as the impact of anthropogenic activity, of Order No. 161/2006 - “Norms on surface water quality classification to determine the ecological status of water bodies“. 30

    30. TEMPERATURE Constanţa: min.-0.4oC (24.01.2010) max. + 29.8oC (17.08.2010) Normal seasonal variations Insignificant differences between 1959-2009and 2010 The average annual temperature of the sea water in Constanța has increased significantly over the past 8 years compared to the period 1959-2002. The averages of July and August 2010 were approx. 4-4.7 oC higher than the multiannual monthly averages (1959-2009) for the same period. (a) (b) Comparative analysis of multiannual monthly (a) and annual (b) averages of seawater temperature (oC), Constanța, 1959-2009 and 2010 31

    31. SALINITY Constanţa monthly averages 10.09÷16.91‰ Insignificant differences between 2010 and 1959-2009 Absolute minimum7.13‰ (20th of July 2010) Absolute maximum 19.09‰ (3rd of June 2010) Salinity is influenced by the Danube’s input and climatic factors (winds and rainfall regime) and, in 2010, recorded the lowest annual average (13.94‰) of the past 19 years. (a) (b) Comparative analysis of multiannual monthly (a) and annual (b) averages of seawater salinity (PSU), Constanța, 1959-2009 and 2010 32

    32. Monthly averages, Constanţa: 69.2 - 456.9 µM 29.3 -156.63% Insignificant seasonal variations (saturation, t test) due to temperature and biological oxygen balance. In July 2010, a hypoxyc event with fish mortalitieswas recorded in Constanţa, due to climatic factors and algal blooms. DISSOLVED OXYGEN 400 380 360 340 320 Dissolved oxygen [µM] 300 280 260 240 220 200 1959 1962 1965 1968 1971 1974 1977 1980 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010 1959-2010 500.0 450.0 400.0 350.0 Dissolved oxygen [µM] 300.0 250.0 200.0 I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII average+s average-s 1959-2009 2010 Good oxygenation of coastal waters, with slightly lower concentrations in the warm season compared to the period 1959-2009 Comparative analysis of multiannual monthly(up) and annual (down) averages of seawater dissolved oxygen (µM), Constanța, 1959-2009and 2010 33

    33. Eutrophication indicatorsNUTRIENTS Significantlylower nitrate concentrations (t test) compared to 1976-2009 Ammonium concentrations comparable (t test) to1980-2009, but higher in the warm season in 2010 P: low values, comparable (t test) to 1960-1970, reference interval for good water quality Si: significantly different (t test) from 1960-2010, with lower monthly averages Nitrates (µM) Constanţa 1976-2009 and 2010 Ammonium (µM) Constanţa 1980-2009 and 2010 Phosphates (µM) Constanţa 1960-2009 and 2010 Silicates (µM) Constanţa 1960-2009 and 2010 Generally, nutrient concentrations (inorganic forms of N, P, Si)recorded normal values, slightly higher in transitional waters and anthropogenic impact areas 34

    34. CHLOROPHYLL a In 2010, chlorophyll a concentrationsranged between 0.66 and 58.47 μg/l in the Romanian coastal waters Seasonal dynamics of chlorophyll a showed: a late winter peak related to annual typical diatoms cycle low chlorophyll level in late spring significant increase in summer (peaked in August) as a result of optimal thermal and haline conditions the lowest values measured in December (below 1 μg/l) Chlorophyll a values recorded in 2010 confirm the increasing trend observed in the past years. Short-term climate changes - the main factor controlling chlorophyll a variability in the Romanian coastal waters Nutrient regime - favorable for sustaining a high primary productivity in the area 35

    35. Contamination indicatorsHEAVY METALS The distribution of heavy metals in seawater and sedimentsfrom transitional, coastal and marine areas evinced some differences between various sectors of the littoral zone, slightly increased concentrations in front of the Danube mouths and in some coastal areas under anthropogenic pressures (harbors, wastewater discharges) being generally observed. In comparison with heavy metals maximum allowed concentrations in shellfish, recommended by the European legislation, the samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis investigatedin 2010 complied with the allowed values. (a) (b) Evolution of the annual average concentrations of cadmium in seawater (a) and sediments (b) along the Romanian littoral during 2006-2010 The values of heavy metal concentrations in the marine ecosystem components were within the variation ranges observed during 2006-2009. 36 36

    36. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) • Transitional,coastal and marine waters • Low averagevalues (< 200 µg/l) of TPHs were recorded in all water bodies compared to 2006-2009, with a minimum in coastal waters of 55.0 µg/l; • The average value was 108.1 µg/l, concentrations varied within the range 17.5 - 651.65 µg/l; • Sediments • TPHs content in sediments fall in the range 9.6 - 550.0 g/g, with an average of 112.6 g/g; • 60% of sediment samples from Sulina -Vama Veche showed a load in total petroleum hydrocarbons<100 g/g. The downward trend in the concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons recorded in the past period, 2006-2009, in water and sediment, continued in 2010. 37

    37. POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS(PAHs) • Transitional,coastaland marine waters • In 2010, the average total content of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in transitional, coastal and marine waters was situated in the specific range for the period 2006-2009; • The water monitoring of PAHs showed high concentrations for the following compounds: anthracene, phenanthrene, benzo (a) anthracene, crysene; • Sediments • Total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons - PAH concentrations in sediments fall in the range 0.015 -2,044µg/g, with an average of 0.629g/g; the downward trend recorded in the past period, 2006-2009, continued in 2010; • Sediment monitoring recorded a high level of pollution for: benzo (a) pyrene, naphthalene, fenantren, anthracene, fluoranthene, indeno (1,2,3-c,d) pyrene, benzo (g,h,i) perylene, pyrene, benzo (a) anthracene. 38

    38. ORGANOCHLORINATE PESTICIDES(OCPs) • Transitional,coastal and marine waters • In 2010, the total organochlorinate pesticides content -g/l in seawater varied within the range of 0.0004- 1.807g/l, with an average of 0,2356 g/l; • Low average values were recorded in all water bodies, compared to 2006-2009; • Sediments • Sediment monitoring of total organochlorinate pesticides content - (g/g) showed that the concentrations fall within the range of 0.0017 - 0.8355 μg/g, with an averageof 0.0925 g/g. • 70-80% of samples recorded values <0.0006 g/g. • There is an obvious decreasing trend of chlorinate pesticides concentrations in water and sediment registered in the past period, 2006 to 2009,which continued in 2010, except for the Sulina-30 m and Mangalia - 40 m stations. 39

    39. 191 phytoplankton species, belonging to 7 algal groups. In coastal waters, dinoflagellates were dominant, with 38% of the total species, followed by diatoms, 37%, and chlorophytes, 11% PHYTOPLANKTON (1) • The multiannual evolution of phytoplankton abundance shows that the annual average of 2010 • (2,6∙106 cel∙l-1) was approx. 2 times higher than the multiannual average of 2000-2009, nevertheless well below the densities recorded in the period of eutrophication. Multiannual averages for phytoplankton in marine waters in the Constanța area between 1983-2010 40 40

    40. PHYTOPLANKTON (2) Main phytoplankton species (103 cel·l-1) in the Romanian sector of the Black Sea waters with significant densities in 2010 41 41

    41. ALGAL BLOOMS Algal blooms, as impact indicator of eutrophication on the marine environment, recorded a downward tendency, both as number and scale, but the number of species developing over 1 million cel/l was rather high. The dominant species were the diatoms Skeletonema costatum, Cyclotella caspia,Cerataulina pelagica, Nitzschia tenuirostris, N. delicatissima and Thallassionema nitzschioides. 42 42

    42. PHYTOBENTHOS In 2010, 27 macroalgal species were identified (25 species and 2 varieties): 12 Chlorophyta, 4 Phaeophyta, 8 Rhodophyta(and 2 varieties ofCeramium rubrum), 1 Phanerogama. High wet biomasses were developed by opportunistic species: Ulva lactuca (1,315 g/m2), Enteromorpha sp. (750g/m2),Ceramium sp. (1,737 g/m2), Ceramium rubrum (1,400 g/m2). During the summer of 2010, the genus Cladophora proliferated abundantly. Cystoseira barbata (perennial brown alga) formed a compact field off Vama Veche, with high wet biomasses; thick bunches were also identified off Mangalia. Zostera noltii (dwarf eelgrass)formed a well-developed grassland off Mangalia; in summer,Zostera flexible thalli were strongly epiphyted by the red alga Acrochaetium thuretii (a microscopic exclusively epiphyte alga and clean water indicator). Average wet weight for the dominant groups along the Romanian seashore during the summer of 2009 and 2010 A positive trend was maintained from the previous years - the regeneration of Cystoseira barbata and Zostera noltii, very important species for the marine ecosystem. 43

    43. ZOOPLANKTON • The qualitative and quantitative structure of zooplankton improved in all seasons, showing an uniform distribution of all 33 identified taxa. • The nontrophic zooplankton recorded the peak abundance and biomass in July, on the Constanța East profile, in the shore area (242,849 ind./m3 and 21,370 mg/m3, respectively). • The trophic zooplankton recorded the peak development values in the shore area of the southern part of the littoral, on the Eforie South profile (225,013 ind./m3 and biomass of 5,815 mg/m3). • Rare species such as Centropages ponticusand the cladoceransPenilia avirostris, Evadne spiniferaandPseudevadne tergestine are continuosly present in the summer and autumn populations. • In 2010, the species Oithona brevicornis was identified for the first time on the Romanian littoral; this species was previously noticed in the Black Sea basin by Ukrainian and Russian researchers. Oithona brevicornis 44

    44. MACROZOOBENTHOS 50 macrozoobenthic species were recorded, compared to 50-52 species recorded between 2006 and 2010; Quantitative increases of densities evinced in the southern sector (Eforie Sud - Mangalia, 6,551 ind/sq.m. Moderate quantitative reduction in the northern sector (Sulina-Portița), about two times less than the 2008-2009 period, when the biomass was estimated at 445 g/m2,the mollusks contribution to increasedbiomasses being reduced in 2010. Evolution in number of macrozoobenthic species in coastal waters (Sulina - Vama Veche), between 2006 and 2010, compared to 1990 For the 2008-2010 period, the results obtained using the metric index (M-AMBI) characterized a moderate quality status of the investigated water bodies, with a slight tendency towards a good status, mostly in those marine areas which are less influenced by pollution/eutrophication, namely in the southern part of the Romanian littoral. The period between 2006 and 2010 showed a slight qualitative improvement, manifested through increased specific diversity in the entire marine sector compared to the ’90s, when the benthic fauna was represented by a maximum of 28 species. 45

    45. Contamination IndicatorsMICROBIOLOGICAL LOAD The concentrations of enteric bacteria [total coliforms (TC), faecal coliforms (FC), faecal streptococci (FS) were generally found within the limits of the National Norms and EC Bathing Water Directive. The values that reflect the level of bathing seawater faecal pollution. The areas under the influence of sewage discharge showed the maximum values of bacterial indicators. CF TC FS 14% 14% 21% 86% 79% 86% % exceeding norms % exceeding norms % exceeding norms % according to norms % according to norms % according to norms The exceeding norms frequency in some bathing areas (Cazino-Mamaia and Neptun) was 14% for TC and FC, and 21% for FS, higher in comparison with 2009 (non observation of sanitary-hygienic norms by tourists and high values of shallow seawaters temperature during the heatwave of the summer of 2010). 46

    46. BIODIVERSITY INDICATORS • The stateof biodiversity - defined by the occurrence of 300 species compared to 200-300 identified yearlyin the past 15 years (750 sp. during the entire period) and 26 endangered sp. from 48 in the Red List • The pressure- expressed by 29 non-indigenous sp., 8 commercially exploited sp. (2 mollusks and 6 fish) and 12 anthropogenic activities • The impact- assessed by no. of threatened sp./no. of total sp. identified in 2010 - 26/345, by no. of extinct sp./no. of total sp. - 7/750 and no. of self-acclimatized sp. - 1 (Mugil soiuyi) • The response- has been estimated by no. of protected sp./no. of total sp. - 16/750 (EGO 57/2007) and less than 50 experts in marine biodiversity • Due to the decrease of marine research effort, only a small no. of marine species is identified every year; the pressure on marine biodiversity and the number of endangered species are still relevant. 47

    47. ENDANGERED SPECIES • The Red List of marine species was entirely updated in 2008 and only for fish in 2009 • It includes 223 species, divided in 8 IUCN categories: 19 macrophytes and angiosperms, 58 invertebrates, 142 fish and 4 mammals 48

    48. MARINE HABITATS (1) The number of marine habitats of European importance (as defined in Habitats Directive - 92/43/EEC) was evaluated to 8 general types (1110-Shallow water submerged sand bars, 1130-Estuaries, 1140-Sandy and muddy surfaces uncovered at low tides, 1150-Coastal lagoons, 1160-Sea arms and large shallow gulfs, 1170-Reefs, 1180-Underwater structures generated by gas emissions, 8330-Totally or partially submerged marine caves), with 28 sub-types. • In 2010, we did not develop research dedicated to marine habitats; some information were obtained during underwater explorations made within other projects. So, in two marine Natura 2000 sites, ROSCI0269 Vama Veche - 2 Mai and ROSCI0094 Underwater sulphur seeps from Mangalia, habitat mapping was made in 2010. • In ROSCI0197 Submerged beach from Eforie North - Eforie South, we discovered the habitat 1170-Reefs on about 27% of the site’s area, thing that was not known at designation time. • In ROSCI0094 Mangalia we discovered an area of 3.886 sq m covered by sub-type 1110-1 Zostera meadows, in addition to the surface known at designation, which was, according to previous measurements,of 988 sq m. Zosterameadow in ROSCI0094 Mangalia (photo INCDM) 49

    49. MARINE HABITATS (2) During the process of evaluation for the marine area of the Black Sea biogeographic region by experts of the European Commission, in 2010 took place a biogeographic seminary. In this context, Romania proposed the designation of a new site, from the shoreline to the 45 m isobath, between the Costinești and 23 August villages. The aim of this proposal is to protect some sub-types of 1170-Reef habitat, including 1170-2-Biogenic reefs with Mytilus galloprovincialis, insufficiently covered in current sites. Cystoseira near a sulphur seep in ROSCI0094 Mangalia (photo INCDM) 50