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ESP: Course Design and Assessment. I. Development. The Story of the City of ELT

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i development
I. Development
  • The Story of the City of ELT
    • The city was surrounded by the high mountains which were inhabited by illiterate and savage tribes called Scientists, Businessmen and Engineers. People in the City of ELT became restless and began to venture into the land beyond mountains. (ESP, Hutchinson and Waters)
development continued
Development (continued)
  • A revolution in linguistics
    • From semantics to pragmatics
  • Focus on the learner
  • ESP’s history
    • The concept of special language: register analysis
    • Beyond the sentence: rhetorical or discourse analysis
    • Target situation analysis
    • Skills and strategies
    • A learning-centered approach
ii esp as an approach
II. ESP as an Approach
  • ESP is not a matter of teaching “specialized varieties” of English.
  • ESP is not different in kind from any other form of language teaching.
  • ESP is not just a matter of Science words and grammar for Scientists, Hotel words and grammar for Hotel staff and so on.
  • ESP is an approach to language learning, which is based on learner need.
    • Why does this learner need to learn a foreign language?
iii course design
III. Course Design
  • Some questions:
    • Why does the student need to learn?
    • Who is going to be involved in the process? (students, teachers, sponsors, inspectors, etc.)
    • Where is the learning to take place?
    • When is the learning to take place?
    • What does the student need to learn?
  • To identify the difference between language description and learning theory
    • Language description: classical grammar, structural linguistics, transformational generative grammar, functional grammar, language variation and register analysis, discourse analysis
    • Learning theories: Learning as habit formation, thinking as rule-governed activity, cognitive code (learners as thinking beings), affective factor (learners as emotional beings, incentives and motivations)
      • Learning and acquisition
iv needs analysis
IV. Needs Analysis
  • Target situation analysis framework
    • Why is the language needed? (for study, for work?)
    • How will the language be used? (speaking? Face to face? lectures?)
    • What will be the content areas be? (medicine, biology, commerce?)
    • Who will the learner use the language with? (native speakers or non-native, expert or student?)
    • Where will the language be used? (hotel, office, library, meetings or abroad?)
    • When will the language be used? (frequently, seldom, often?)

Learning needs: A framework for analysing learning needs

    • Why are the learners taking the course?
    • How do the learners learn? (their learning background, what methodology?)
    • What resources are available? (teachers’ knowledge, materials, aids, etc)
    • Who are the learners? (age, subject knowledge, interest?)
v approaches to course design
V. Approaches to Course Design
  • Language-centered course design
    • Select theoretical views of language
  • Skills-centered course design
    • Target situation, skills to cope in target situation
  • Learning-centered design
    • Identify target situation, analyze learning situation
vi esp policy objectives oriented
VI. ESP Policy:Objectives-oriented
  • Subject learning and career type
    • Science, hotel management, nursing, etc.
  • Learning’s KPI
    • achievement evaluation, real life’s use of the language
vi esp models
VI. ESP Models
  • ESP and Freshman English (EGP-type ESP)
  • Language learning accompanied by subject teaching: for business, humanities, social sciences (2+1)
  • Subject learning accompanied by language learning: for science, medicine, engineering (1+2)
vii esp aims
VII. ESP: aims
  • Practical: communicative skills
  • Skills-based: placement test
  • Career-oriented: vocational, academic, etc.
viii evaluation
VIII. Evaluation
  • Learner assessment
    • Placement tests
    • Achievement tests (skill test or knowledge test)
    • Proficiency tests (to use the language in real-life situation)
  • Course evaluation
    • Materials
    • Teaching and learning techniques
    • Administrative arrangement
    • Testing
viii how to organize esp
VIII. How to organize ESP
  • Structural reform
    • Who is in charge? How is the Department of English structured?
  • The changing role of the teacher
    • Positive attitude toward ESP
    • A knowledge of the fundamental principles of the subject area
    • An awareness of how much they probably already know
  • Course reform
    • Class size
    • The levels of English language courses (from Freshman English to EOP or EAP)
    • Universal syllabi or testing system
    • Teaching materials
  • A new methodology?
  • A new subject area?
  • What is an English teacher?
  • Are we ready for the change?