prosocial and antisocial development n.
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Prosocial and Antisocial Development. Individual Differences in Prosocial Behavior. Role of Nature: Identical twins show modest correlations in tendency to engage in prosocial acts Most likely due to differences in temperament e.g. amount of negative emotion and regulation of emotion

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Prosocial and Antisocial Development

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    1. Prosocial and Antisocial Development

    2. Individual Differences in Prosocial Behavior • Role of Nature: • Identical twins show modest correlations in tendency to engage in prosocial acts • Most likely due to differences in temperament • e.g. amount of negative emotion and regulation of emotion • e.g. Assertiveness • Again, a key difference in moral reasoning and moral action—e.g. how cognitive functioning and personality style (moral character) interact to influence behavior

    3. Nurture (e.g. Parents influence in 3 main ways) • Modeling and communication of values • More imitation of those that have a positive relationship with • Discussions of consequences on person’s feelings not just indicating good/bad • Opportunities for prosocial activities • “Snowball” effect: those that engage in prosocial feel better about themselves, others treat them more positively, thus engage in more prosocial behavior • Discipline and parenting style • Supportive and constructive parenting is related to higher prosocial behavior • Physical punishment, threats, and authoritarian parenting are related to lower sympathy and prosocial behavior • Physical rewards for prosocial behavior decrease motivation later for prosocial behavior if the reward is not present • Punishment for not using prosocial behavior leads the child to believe the reason for helping is to avoid own punishment

    4. Antisocial Behavior • Comes in many forms, degrees, many paths to it • Poor parenting > child conduct problems > peer rejection + academic failure > deviant peer group > antisocial behavior • “Poor parenting” can result from low SES, low education, unemployment, marital discord/divorce, etc. • Amplifying effect = stressors greater for those who already have negative traits or poor social skills

    5. Conduct Disorder 9% of males, 2 % of females under age 18 Basic rights of others are violated, social norms and rules violated Disturbance of conduct lasting at least 6 months during which 3 of the following have been present: • Has stolen without confrontation of victim • Ran away from home more than twice • Often lies • Deliberately engages in fire setting • Often truant from school • Broken into someone else care, house, etc. • Cruel to animals • Forced someone into sexual activity • Initiates physical fights • Used a weapon in more than one fight • Stolen with confrontation of a victim • Physically cruel to people

    6. Antisocial Personality Disorder A personality disorder = enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to, or thinking about world, exhibited in a range of contexts; inflexible and maladaptive (often recognizable by adolescence or earlier) Conduct disorder prior to age 15 and A pattern of irresponsible and antisocial behavior since age 15 including at least 4 of the following: • Unable to sustain consistent work behavior • Fails to conform to social norms; lawful behavior • Irritable and aggressive • Fails to honor financial obligations • Impulsive • No regard for the truth (lies, cons, uses aliases) • Reckless regarding own and others’ safety • If parent, lacks ability to function as responsible parent • Has never sustained a monogamous relationship for more than a year • Lacks remorse

    7. ASPD: Bob Hare’s Descriptives Emotional/Interpersonal Problems • Glib and superficial • Egocentric • Lack of remorse or guilt • Lack of empathy • Deceitful and manipulative • Shallow emotions Social Problems • Impulsive • Poor behavior controls • Need for excitement • Lack of responsibility • Early behavior problems

    8. Antisocial Personality Disorder

    9. Classic Inconsistency • Continuity across development (5%) but at the same time: • The majority of those with conduct disorders do not go on to develop ASPD • There is a markedly higher rate of antisocial behaviour in teens (peeks at age 17, up to 70% of teens) (it may be normative?)

    10. Equifinality • Moffit’s (1993) Theory • Two paths: • Life-Course Persistent • Starts early and continues into adulthood • Adolescence-Limited • Starts and ends in adolescence

    11. Life Course Persistent Factors that predispose us to ASPD • 1. Genetics • 2. Prenatal alcohol and drug abuse • 3. Obstetrical complications • Resulting in neurological damages Neurological damages expressed in 3 ways: • Difficult temperament (cranky babies) • Deficits in verbal skills (expressive and receptive speech, reading and writing development) • Executive deficits (planning behaviours, shifting attention, checking the plan) Can be made worse with maladaptive home environments (e.g. harsh and unpredictable behaviour by parents, abusive, poor monitoring) [Note: Biological parents may share neurological consequences compounding the effect]

    12. Life Course Persistent • E.g. How these traits come together in ASB? • Verbal abilities • Verbal deficits may lead to the child acting out more because they cannot articulate their needs appropriately • Therefore, they elicit more negative feedback from caregivers • Difficult Temperment Problems forming close attachments • Happens early (first with parents) • And other relationships across the lifespan • Poor relationships (lack of empathy), choose antisocial mates • Executive Difficulties • Lead to decreased academic success due to inability to plan, impulsive, poor attention • Resulting in School failure, occupational failure, criminal behavior

    13. Adolescence-Limited • Kids who associate with antisocial peers may mimic the behaviour • This behaviour is seen as cool initially, but as they age, the rewards are seen differently (not so rewarding) • They will then shift their behaviour more prosocial behaviour (they grow out of it) ----------------------------- • Life-course persistent • Rare – 5% • Inflexible • Has biological roots • Environmentally influenced • Adolescence Limited • Common • Adaptive? Flexible • has sociocultural roots (requires an antisocial role model they can mimic)

    14. Evidence for 2 paths • People who experience birth complications have higher rate of adult violent offending (Kandel & Mednick, 1991) • Twin studies (Taylor, 2000) • Early onset---life-course (MZ > DZ) • Late onset—adolescence limited (MZ approximately equal to DZ) • IQ Deficits • ASB ½ standard deviation below average IQ • PIQ > VIQ • Even after accounting for SES & family adversity is accounted for • Effortful attention (WISC-R ‘freedom from distraction’ is low for ASB • Inhibitory problems (Go/No-Go), Working memory deficits in ASB • Prefrontal cortex structural abnormalities