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Antisocial Personality Disorder. Antisocial Behaviour. Antisocial Behaviour criminal, aggressive behaviour that might come to clinical attention less inflexible, maladaptive, persistent, distressing, and impairing than APD. Antisocial Personality Disorder.

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antisocial behaviour
Antisocial Behaviour
  • Antisocial Behaviour
    • criminal, aggressive behaviour that might come to clinical attention
    • less inflexible, maladaptive, persistent, distressing, and impairing than APD
antisocial personality disorder1
Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • Pervasive disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins before the age of 15 and continues into adulthood
  • 1% of females and 4-6% of males
antisocial personality disorder2
Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • Defining features:
    • Antisocial behaviour present before age 15
    • Irresponsible
    • Irritable/Aggressive
    • Impulsive/Reckless
    • Deceitfulness
  • Late 19th century: “Psychopath”
  • 20th century: “Sociopath”
  • DSM-IV: “Antisocial Personality Disorder”
    • not all antisocial behaviour is evidence of a “disorder”
    • but fails to include emotional and interpersonal characteristics associated with psychopathy
apd vs psychopathy
APD vs. Psychopathy
  • Impulsive, but motivated vs. unmotivated
  • Irritable, angry vs. shallow emotions - no empathy or anxiety
  • Normal learning vs. poor passive avoidance learning
  • Constantly in conflict with society vs. pleasant exterior & deceptive
  • reactive aggression vs. instrumental aggression
Considerable overlap and debate
    • Clinically antisocial
    • Simply a criminal
    • Psychopath
antisocial behaviour and age
Antisocial Behaviour and Age
  • By definition APD individuals demonstrated antisocial behaviour during adolescence
  • Homicide rates among boys are much higher in the USA than anywhere else
  • Violence has been increasing among children in the USA
antisocial behaviour and age1
Antisocial Behaviour and Age
  • Two DSM-IV categories for childhood antisocial behaviour:
    • Conduct Disorder
    • Oppositional Defiant Disorder
antisocial behaviour and age2
Antisocial Behaviour and Age
  • Antisocial behaviour in childhood is a good predictor of adult antisocial behaviour
  • Protective factors
    • high levels of physiological arousal
    • strong orienting response
sociocultural approach
Sociocultural Approach
  • Next to gender, poverty is the single greatest risk factor for violent behaviour
  • Injustices in society contribute to the development of criminal behaviour
    • need and inability to succeed in a socially sanctioned manner
  • Socialization into groups that encourage antisocial behaviour
behavioural approach
Behavioural Approach
  • Focus on the individuals immediate environment (family)
  • Modeling
    • media, family examples
  • Poor reinforcement of pro-social behaviour
  • Inconsistent and harsh punishments
  • Do not perceive connection between positive behaviour and treatment they receive (luck)
cognitive approach
Cognitive Approach
  • Poor social problem solving and ability to read social situations
  • See hostility where none was intended
biological approach
Biological Approach
  • Identical twins are more likely than fraternal twins to be concordant in criminal activity
  • Adopted twins separated at birth are more likely to be concordant with each other than with adopted siblings
biological approach1
Biological Approach
  • APD shows high comorbidity with addictions
  • General vulnerability to toward antisocial behaviour, not violence
  • EEG abnormality in left frontal lobes
biological approach2
Biological Approach
  • Limited capacity for fear
  • Poor fear conditioning
  • Underaroused stimulus-seekers
    • heart rates at age 3 predict aggression at age 11
Anderson, Bechara, Damasio, Tranel and Damasio (1999) Impairment of social and moral behaviour related to early damage in human prefrontal cortex
    • impaired social behaviour, insensitivity to consequences of decisions, defective autonomic responses to punishment
    • defective social and moral reasoning (but normal intelligence)
Raine, Lencz, Bihrle, LaCasse, and Colletti (2000) Reduced prefrontalgray matter volume and reduced autonomic activity in antisocial personality disorder
    • people with APD who do not have discernable brain trauma nevertheless have subtle prefrontal deficits
    • this my explain low arousal, poor fear conditioning, lack of conscience, and decision-making deficits
psychodynamic approach
Psychodynamic Approach
  • Traditional psychoanalytic approaches
    • poor SuperEgo development