Modern Life of India • Family Life & Marriage Traditions • Most follow the arranged marriage tradition. • Families are large. • Extended Families live together. • Marriages are male dominated & divorce is rare.
Modern Life of India • Family Life & Marriage Traditions • Urban Indians tend to follow fewer traditions than rural Indians.
Modern Life of India • Traditional Diet • It is largely vegetarian. • Rice • Legumes • Flatbreads like “chapati or roti” Some Indians eat meat, fish, & chicken. Curry is a favorite type of sauce consumed. Meat consumption is low partly to some Hindu & Muslim practices.
Modern Life of India • Sports & Recreation • Soccer • Field hockey • Cricket • Indian classical music that uses traditional instruments like the sitar & tablag) • Pop Music is growing. • Mumbai (Bombay) has a huge film industry.
Modern Life of India • Milestones for most young people • Festivals are a big part of Indian life for all ages. • Traditional dress for women includes • Embroidered skirts • Head shawls • Jewelry
Modern Life of India • Milestones for most young people • Women often have more family responsibilities than men. • Women often have less access to education & professional jobs.
Modern Life of India • Milestones for most young people • Free education is available to people ages 6-14. • Some children start working at the age of 10 years old. • Rural women often marry by age 16. • Urban women often marry by age 17. • Males can enter the military at age 17. • The voting age is 18
Modern Life of India • Education • Free education is available for people ages 6-14 years, but many people cannot take advantages because of the shortage or schools & great distance. • Middle & Upper income Indians are more likely to receive more education. • Urban Indians are more likely to be educated.
Modern Life of India • Education • City slums & rural Indians are less likely to receive as much education as other Indians. • School attendance is irregular & literacy is low in these Indian populations.
Modern Life of India • Education • India’s government has placed a high priority on education. • Literacy has risen steadily since the 1950s, but education is still a problem for many Indian people, especially for low income Indian more likely found in rural areas & urban slums.
Indian Culture • Languages • Number of languages • The Indian constitution recognizes 18 major languages. • There are over 1000 different languages & dialects. • Southern Indian has great diversity in languages & ethnic groups. • One big ethnic group in the south is the Dravidians. • The Dravidians speak non-Indo-European languages.
Indian Culture • Languages • Official Language • Hindi is the official language & it is the most widely spoken language. • Hindi still can present language barriers because of many dialects.
Indian Culture • Languages • Importance of English • English is widely spoken. • The is partly due to England’s past rule over the region. • Most Indian business people & government officials speak English.
Indian Culture • Hindu Religion’s Impact on Indian Culture • The Hindu religion & customs are rooted from Aryan settlers. • Number of Indian Hindus • 80 percent
Indian Culture • Hindu beliefs • Reincarnation • Is the rebirth of souls after death. • People get reincarnated until they become one with Brahman (the sum of all spiritual forces). • People have to work out their bad karma through reincarnations until they achieve the ultimate spiritual state & become one with Brahman.
Indian Culture • Hindu beliefs • Karma • These are the moral consequences a person’s behavior that impacts a person’s fate later in life or in future life. • Bad behavior can result in bad karma. • Good behavior can produce good karma.
Indian Culture • Hindu beliefs • Caste System • Started as an Aryan social class system that turned into the Hindu social class system that still influences Indian society. • Examples • Brahmans • Priests & Scholars • Kshatriyas • Rulers & Warriors • Vaisyas • Farmers & Merchents • Sudras • Artisans & Laborers
Indian Culture • Hindu beliefs • More on the Caste System • Untouchables • Called “dalits” • These people are the lowest members of Indian society. • They are actually “outside” the caste system. • They are “outcasts.” • Dalits or Untouchable status has been been outlawed since India became independent of UK.
Indian Culture • Hindu beliefs • Dharma • These are the duties of the class system. • The only way to move up in the caste system is through reincarnation. • The caste system has provided social stability, social order, & a clear division of labor. • But it has been used to discriminate against people & keep people from improving their lives.
Indian Culture • Other Indian Religions • Islam • 2nd to Hindu with 150 million followers • Millions of other Indian Muslims left India when Pakistan formed in 1947. • Jainism • Christianity • Sikhism • Buddhism