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Insights into the 3D Geometry of Thrust Belts using x-ray Tomography of Sandbox Experiments. Jaime Toro West Virginia University. The Data. A stack of 100 x-ray images through the deformed sandbox Acquired at IFP in Rueil-Malmaison, France Also available are slices at intermediate stages.

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insights into the 3d geometry of thrust belts using x ray tomography of sandbox experiments

Insights into the 3D Geometry of Thrust Belts using x-ray Tomography of Sandbox Experiments

Jaime Toro

West Virginia University

the data
The Data
  • A stack of 100 x-ray images through the deformed sandbox
  • Acquired at IFP in Rueil-Malmaison, France
  • Also available are slices at intermediate stages
goals
Goals
  • Understand the relationship between maps and cross sections
  • Explore the 3D geometry of thrust faults
  • Think about how shortening is accommodated in different portions of a thrust-belt
context
Context
  • After discussing Thrust Systems
  • After doing conventional sandbox experiments
  • After some practice with simple cross sections
  • Before any real field mapping
lab exercise

Vertical Slice

(Cross section)

Lab Exercise

Horizontal Slice though the model

(Map View)

Vertical Slice

(Cross section)

activities 1 interpret the cross sections
Activities 1: Interpret the Cross Sections

1. Color the two cross sections.

2. Highlight the faults in red.  

activities 2 make a geological map
Activities 2: Make a Geological Map

On overlay paper:

  • 1. Color the stratigraphic units on the map. 
  • 2. Draw contacts
  • 3. Draw faults with appropriate symbols

4. Anticline and syncline axes.

  • 5. Strike and dip symbols where possible.
activities 3 fault linkage
Activities 3: Fault linkage
  • Label all the faults on the map from west to east using A, B, C, etc.
  • Put the same fault labels on the cross sections.
  • Discuss how shortening is partitioned among the faults
fault linkage

E

Fault Linkage

H

A

G

E

A

H

C

D

F

B

D

B

E

H

activity 3 mystery sections
Activity 3-Mystery sections
  • Make a new cross section on the basis of your map
other insights basement structure
Other Insights- Basement Structure

Thin cover at north end

Thick cover at south end

deformation movie
Deformation Movie

South End (A-A’)

deformation sequence
Deformation Sequence

Mystery section- middle slice

Final State

conclusion
Conclusion
  • 3D Sandbox models are powerful tools for developing intuition about complex structures both in terms of geometry and kinematics.