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Structural Anatomy of Fold and Thrust Belts. By: Karenth Dworsky, Julia Mulhern, Danielle Lehle, Heather Judd. Moine thrust, Scotland, http://www.tectonique.net/. Intro/Vocabulary Review. Berg, 2011. Zagros Mountains, http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/geomorphology/GEO_2/GEO_PLATE_T-42.shtml.

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slide1

Structural Anatomy of Fold and Thrust Belts

By: Karenth Dworsky, Julia Mulhern, Danielle Lehle, Heather Judd

Moine thrust, Scotland, http://www.tectonique.net/

slide2

Intro/Vocabulary Review

Berg, 2011

Zagros Mountains, http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/geomorphology/GEO_2/GEO_PLATE_T-42.shtml

thrust sheet-defined as “a volume of rock bound below by a thrust fault” (Boyer and Elliot, 1982)

classes of folding

1) Detached Folding - caused by compression above a bedding-plane decollement

2) Fault-propagation Folding - caused by compression in front of a fault tip during fault propagation.

3) Fault-bend Folding- caused by bending of a fault-block as it rides over a non-planar fault surface

Classes of Folding:

(Berg, 2011)

slide4

Detached Folds

(Burg, 2011)

slide5

Mississippi Fan Fold Belt

(Rowan et al. 2004)

slide6

Fault Propagation Folding

Lost River Range, Idaho

(Suppe and Medwedeff, 1990)

slide7

Fault Propagation Folding:

Niger Delta Fold Belt

(Rown et al. 2004)

slide8

Fault Propagation Folding:

Fault Break-through

(Suppe and Medwedeff, 1990)

slide9

Fault Propagation Folds in the Field

(Suppe and Medwedeff, 1990)

slide10

Fault Propagation Folds in Seismic

(Suppe and Medwedeff, 1990)

slide11

Fault Bend Folding

R. W. Allmendinger, 2008

slide12

Thrust Ramp Geometry

Oblique Ramp

Frontal Ramp

Lateral Ramp

Direction

of Transport

(Cook, 2009)

slide13

Growth of a

Fault-Bend Fold

Eohimalayan Fold and Thrust Belt, NW Himalaya, India

http://www.fault-analysis-group.ucd.ie/papermodels/models/kyoto.jpg

(Suppe, 1983)

slide15

Internal Deformation

Classic FBF

Suppe, 2004

slide16

Pine Mountain, Appalachian

Earth Structure 2nd ed., 2004

slide17

Imbrication

Imbricate System- thrusts that occur in conjunction with one another to create a series of thrusts sheets of similar shape and size that onlap each other.

(Boyer and Elliot, 1982)

(Mitra, 1986)

slide19

Duplexing

(Averbauch and Mansy, 1998)

(Burg, 2011)

slide20

Moine Duplex System

(Elliot and Johnson, 1980)

slide21

Thin Skin vs. Thick Skin Deformation

  • Thin skinned deformation-crustal shortening involving only sedimentary cover due to basal decollement
  • Thick skinned deformation-crustal shortening involving basement rocks. Horizontal and vertical thickening

(Burg, 2011)

slide22

Types of Thrust Belts

EarthStructure, 2nd ed., 2004

slide23

Global Examples of Fold Belts

http://www.freevector.com/globe-map

subduction zones the andes
Subduction Zones: The Andes

http://www.optics.rochester.edu/workgroups/cml/opt307/spr12/nandini/index.html

continent continent collision the himalayas
Continent-Continent Collision:The Himalayas

http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/education/dynamic/session4/sess4_himalayas.htm

slide27

Satellite View of the Himalayas

http://www.cliffshade.com/colorado/tectonics.htm

salt detached buckle folds zagros
Salt Detached Buckle Folds:Zagros

http://www.thunderbolts.info/tpod/2007/arch07/071001zagrosmountains.htm

cross section of zagros
Cross Section of Zagros

(Sarkarinejad, 2008)

alberta montana thrust sheet duplex system with fault bend folding
Alberta-Montana Thrust Sheet:Duplex System with Fault Bend Folding

http://bio-geo-terms.blogspot.com/2007/09/duplex.html

slide34

Sevier Fold Belt

EarthStructure, 2nd ed., 2004

slide35

References:

Averbuch, O., and Mansy, J. L., 1998, The ‘Basse-Normandie’ duplex (Boulonnais, N France): evidence for an out-of-sequence thrusting overprint:

Journal of Structural Geology, v. 20, no. 1, p. 33-42.

Boyer, S. E., and Elliott, D., 1982, Thrust systems: AAPG Bulletin-American Association of Petroleum Geologists, v. 66, no. 9, p. 1196-1229.

Burg, Jean Pierre. 2011. Thrust System Presentation, Universitat Zurich, Switzerlandhttp://www.files.ethz.ch/structuralgeology/JPB/index.html

Butler, Rob. 2012. The Moine Thrust Belt: An introduction to important sites. http://www.see.leeds.ac.uk/structure/mtb/index.htm

Cook, B.S. and Thomas, W., 2009, Superposed lateral ramps in the Pell City thrust sheet, Appalachian thrust belt, Alabama: Journal of Structural

Geology, v. 31, no. 9, p. 941-949.

Dahlstrom, C.D.A., 1970, Structural geology in the eastern margin of the Canadian Rocky mountains. Canad. Petrol. Geol. Bull. 18:332-406.

de Vera, J., J. Gines, M. Oehlers, K. McClay, and J. Doski., 2009, Structure of the Zagros fold and thrust belt in the Kurdistan Region, northern Iraq.

Trabajos de Geología, Universidad de Oviedo, 29, p. 213-217. Web. <http://www.geol.uniovi.es/TDG/Volumen29/TG29-39.PDF>.

Medwedeff, D. A., 1989, Growth of fault bend folding at southeast Lost Hills, San Joaquin Valley, California: Aapg Bulletin-American Association of

Petroleum Geologists, v. 73, no. 1, p. 54-67.

Mitra, S., 1990, Fault - propagation folds: Geometry, kinematic evolution, and hydrocarbon traps: AAPG

Bulletin- American Association of Petroleum Geologists, v. 74, no. 6, p. 921-945.

Sarkarinejad, K., Azizi, A. Slip partitioning and inclined dextral transpression along the Zagros Thrust System, 2008, Journal of Structural Geology,

v 30, no. 1, p 116-136, ISSN 0191-8141, 10.1016/j.jsg.2007.10.001. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191814107001988)

Shaw, J. H. and J. Suppe, 1996, "Earthquake hazards of active blind-thrust faults under the central Los Angeles Basin, California." Journal of

Geophysical Research 101 (B4): 8623-8642.

Shaw, J. H., 1998, "Cracking Los Angeles." Nature 394(6691): 320-321.

Suppe, J., 1983, Geometry and kinematics of fault-bend folding: American Journal of Science, v. 283, no. 7, p. 684-721.

Suppe, J., and Medwedeff, D. A., 1990, Geometry and kinematics of fault- propagation folding Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, v. 83, no. 3, p.

409-454.

Suppe, J., Connors, C., and Zhang, Y., 2004, Shear fault-bend folding, in K. R. McClay, ed., Thrust tectonics and hydrocarbon systems: AAPG

Memoir 82, p. 303-323.

Earth Structures, 2nd ed., 2004, W.W. Norton & Co., New York.

Yeats, R.S., T. Nakata, A. Farah, M. Fort, M.A. Mirza, M.R. Pandey, and R.S. Stein. 1992, The Himalayan Frontal Fault System., Annales

Tectonicae, v 6, p. 85-98. Web. <http://profile.usgs.gov/myscience/upload_folder/ci2010Jun2113312842966Yeats et al Annales Tectonicae

1992.pdf>.