è¥¿æ–¹æ–‡å¸çš„æºé ï¼š. æ™‚é–“ ï¼š c. 850 B.C.? èˆ‡ c. 750 B.C.? åœ°é»ž ï¼šåœ°ä¸æµ· (the Mediterranean Sea) å››å‘¨ æ°‘æ— ï¼š the Greeks and the Jews èªžè¨€ ï¼š Hellenic ( å¤å¸Œè…Šèªž ) ï¼Œ Hebrew ( å¤é–ƒæ—èªž ) æ–‡é¡ž ï¼š mythological ( ç¥žè©±çš„ ) ï¼Œ religious ( å®—æ•™çš„ ) ä»£è¡¨ä½œ ï¼š the Homeric epics ( è·é¦¬çš„å²è©© ) ï¼Œ The Bible ( è–ç¶“ ). What is an epic ( å²è©© ) ?.
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The Bible (聖經)
early or primary epics vs. literary epics
Epic conventions: invocation, in medias res (in the middle of things), hero’s notable deeds (descent into the underworld), etc.
E.g.:Iliad, Odyssey, Beowulf; Aeneid, Paradise Lost
The Odyssey (奧迪賽)
Iliad: for Ilios (Troy) or for Helen
Odyssey:Odysseus’ homeward wanderings
Peleus & Thetis, Eris (Discord)
Hera, Athena, Aphrodite
Zeus, Paris, Helen, Menelaus, Agamemnon
Agamemnon, Chryseis, Apollo
Briseis, Achilles, Patroclus,
Odysseus and his men, the Sirens
Filling ears with beeswax, tying to the mast
50 suitors, weaving a shroud,
Telemachus, Odysseus’ bow
the New Testament (& the Apocrypha)
written originally in Hebrew：
History, Prophetic Books, Lyric Poetry
Drama, Wisdom Literature, Tales
man, the fall of Adam and Eve,
Noah’s flood, the Tower of Babel
Egypt, led by Moses, crossing the Red Sea,
wandering 40 years in the Sinai wilderness,
Satan, God, Job, the Voice out of the Whirlwind
Jehovah wanted the prophet to preach in Nineveh.
Rebelliousness & selfishness;
universality & mercifulness of God.
Mythological culture Religious culture
Polytheistic 多神 Monotheistic 單神
Humanism 人文主義Theism 神文主義
Hedonism 享樂 Asceticism 禁慾
For this world 今生 For the other world 來世
Secular life 世俗生話Divine life 神明生活
Id (抑德) & Ego (本我) Super-ego (超我)