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Symmetry and Physics

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  1. Symmetry and Physics

  2. Origin • Greeks • Copernicus & Kepler • 19th century • 20th century

  3. 1. Origin of Concept of Symmetry

  4. Painting Sculpture Music Literature Architecture

  5. 2. Greeks

  6. Harmony of the Spheres Dogma of the Circles

  7. Copernicus (1473-1543) Kepler (1571-1630)

  8. Six planets: Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Earth, Venus, Mercury

  9. Mysterium Cosmographicum 1596

  10. One of the methods now to find reasons of some observed regularity:

  11. Choose some mathe- matical regularity resulting from symmetry require- ments.(b) Match it to observed regularity.

  12. Discussed why snow flakes are 6-sided • Albertus Magnus:+1260 • In China: -135

  13. But no effort to try to explain why.

  14. 19th Century Groups and Crystals

  15. Galois (1811-1832)

  16. Concept of groups is the mathematical representation of concept of symmetry.

  17. Symmetry and invariance

  18. A 90° rotation is called a 4-fold rotation.

  19. It will be denoted by 4. It is an invariant element of the graph.

  20. 3 dimensional 230 (1890) 2 dimensional 17 (1891) 4 dimensional 4895 (~1970)

  21. 5. 20th Century

  22. 5.1 Symmetry applied to concepts of space and time

  23. Special Relativity 1905 Lorentz Symmetry

  24. General Relativity 1916 Very Large Symmetry

  25. 5.2 Symmetry applied to atomic, nuclei, particle properties

  26. Quantum Numbers, spin, parity