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Europe and the Mediterranean . Austria. History Occupied by Celtic tribes in pre-Roman times Bavarians, Slavs and Avars invaded after the Roman Empire fell First record showing the name Austria was in 996 Habsburgs dynasty ruled until World War I. Geography Mountainous In the Alps

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Europe and the Mediterranean

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  • History
    • Occupied by Celtic tribes in pre-Roman times
    • Bavarians, Slavs and Avars invaded after the Roman Empire fell
    • First record showing the name Austria was in 996
    • Habsburgs dynasty ruled until World War I
  • Geography
    • Mountainous
      • In the Alps
    • Only a quarter of the land is considered low lying
    • Divided into five areas
      • Eastern Alps-62%
      • Foothills at base of Alps-12%
      • Foothills to east-12%
      • Austrian granite plateau-10%
      • Vienna basin-4%
austria cont
Austria cont.
  • Culture
    • Broad contribution to various forms of art
      • Mostly in music
    • Rose in 16th century
    • European power
    • Contributions to cinema and theater
  • Places to visit
    • Vienna
    • Salzburg
    • Innsbruck
    • Graz
    • Danube Valley
    • Klagenfurt
    • Eisenstadt
  • History
    • Derives from the term “White Ruthenia”
    • Mostly populated by early Christian Slavs
    • Often been referred to as “White Russia”
    • Named Belorussia in the time of the Russian Empire
      • Only used until 1991
  • Geography
    • Landlocked country
    • The Neman, the Pripyat, and the Dnieper are the three major rivers that run through the country
    • Cold winters and moist summers
belarus cont
Belarus cont.
  • Culture
    • Product of a millennium of development under the impact of many diverse factors
    • Catholicism, Orthodoxy, Judaism, and Islam
  • Places to visit
    • Belarusian State Museum of the History of the Great Patriotic War
    • Brest Fortress
    • Brest Railway Museum
    • Cathedral of Holy Wisdom
    • Island of Tears memorial
  • History
    • Derived from Gallia Belgica, which was a Roman province
    • Inhabited by a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples before the Roman invasion in 100 BC
    • Gradual immigration of Germanic Frankish tribes during 5th century
  • Geography
    • Shares borders with France, Germany, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands
    • Coastal plain in north-west and central plateau in Anglo-Belgian Basin; Ardennes uplands in the south-east are part of the Hercynianorogenic belt; Paris Basin reaches a small fourth area at Belgium's southernmost tip, Belgian Lorraine
belgium cont
Belgium cont.
  • Culture
    • Political and linguistic divisions
    • Flourishing of major art movements
    • Cultural life concentrated within each language community
  • Places to visit
    • Bruges
    • Brussels
    • Antwerp
    • Ghent
  • History
    • Thracians were one of the three primary ancestral groups of modern day Bulgarians
    • Taken over by Roman Empire
    • Tervel strengthened the borders of Bulgaria as a major military power by defeating a 26,000-strong Arab army
  • Geography
    • Apline snow-capped peaks, Balkan mountains, mild and sunny Black Sea coast
    • 30% of land is plains, 41% plateaus and hills
    • Southwest is mountainous
    • Overall temperate climate
bulgaria cont
Bulgaria cont.
  • Culture
    • Mostly Thracian, Slavic and Bulgar heritage, but with Greek, Roman, Ottoman and Celtic influences
    • Archaeological discoveries from Roman times
    • Hub of Slavic culture during Middle Ages
  • Places to visit
    • Sunny Beach
    • Sofia
    • Varna
    • Bansko
    • Plovdiv
    • Burgas
    • VelikoTurnovo
  • History
    • Hominids settled there at least 130,000 years ago
    • During Neolithic and Bronze Age periods Crete was ruled by Minoans
    • Ruled by:
      • Roman Empire
      • Byzantine Empire
      • Emirate of Crete
      • Republic of Venice
      • Ottoman Empire
  • Geography
    • Elongated shape
    • Extremely mountainous
    • Mountains create valleys, fertile plateaus, caves, and gorges
    • Two climactic zones, but primarily temperate
crete cont
Crete cont.
  • Culture
    • Has it’s own heritage, as well as some Greek heritage
    • Distinct Cretan dialect of Greek with an extended vocabulary that is Crete-specific
    • Known for its Mantinades-based music
  • Places to visit
    • Chania
    • Heraklion
    • AgiaGallini
    • AgiosNikolaos
    • Hersonisos
    • Ierapetra
    • Kissamos
  • History
    • Inhabited throughout the prehistoric period
      • Neolithic
        • Starčevo, Vučedol and Hvar cultures
      • Iron Age
        • Hallstatt culture and La Tène culture
    • Became part of the Roman Empire in 9 AD
  • Geography
    • Shape resembles a crescent or horseshoe
    • Slovenia and Hungary in the north
    • Plains
    • Densely wooded mountains
    • Rocky coastlines
croatia cont
Croatia cont.
  • Culture
    • Result of a fourteen century-long history
    • Adoptions from ancient Greek, Roman and Illyrian cultures
    • Culture divided into two cultural circles:
      • Central European
      • Mediterranean
  • Places to visit
    • Dubrovnik
    • Split
    • Opatija
    • Zagreb
    • Hvar
    • Rabac
    • Korcula
cyprus turkish fed state
Cyprus, Turkish Fed. State
  • History
    • Aetokremnos was the first site where human activity was located
      • Hunter-gatherer societies starting around 10,000 BC
    • Part of Hittite Empire from late Bronze Age to when Greek settlement arrived
  • Geography
    • Syria and Lebanon to east, Israel to southeast, Egypt to south, Greece to northwest
    • Dominated by two mountain ranges:
      • Troodos Mountains
      • Kyrenia Range
    • Highest point is Mount Olympus
cyprus turkish fed state cont
Cyprus, Turkish Fed. State cont.
  • Culture
    • Divided into two distinct cultures:
      • Greek
      • Turkish Cypriots
    • No unified culture
      • Greeks and Turkish cultures do not mix/interact much
    • Traditional folk music has common elements with Greek, Turkish, and Arabic music
  • Places to visit
    • PaphosHarbour & Castle
    • Courion/Kolossi Castle
    • Larnaca Salt Lake & Hala Sultan Tekke
    • Ayia Napa and Protaras
    • Nicosia 'within the walls' and the House of HadigeorgakisKornesios
    • Cedar Valley
    • PanayiatouAraka
    • Choirokitia
    • Lefkara
    • The Paphos mosaic
czech republic
Czech Republic
  • History
    • Evidence of prehistoric settlements back to the Neolithic era
    • Slavic people from the Black Sea and Carpathian regions settled in the area
    • Bohemian or Czech state emerged in the late 9th century, when it was unified by the Přemyslid dynasty
  • Geography
    • Landscape is varied:
      • Bohemia, consists of a basin drained
      • Vltava rivers surrounded by low mountains
      • East is hilly
    • Landlocked state
    • Temperate continental climate
czech republic cont
Czech Republic cont.
  • Culture
    • Music has roots of over 1000 years old
    • Influenced by general folk music
    • Czech language is used most in literature
      • Old Church Slavonic, Latin or German have also been used
  • Places to visit
    • The Prague Castle
    • Charles Bridge
    • The Old Town
    • Josefov
    • New Town of Prague
    • The Lesser Town
    • City Center of Brno
    • Spilberk Castle
    • Vankovka Gallery
  • History
    • Earliest archaeological findings date back to Eem interglacial period (130,000–110,000 BC)
    • Inhabited since around 12, 500 BC and farming since 3900 BC
    • Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot
  • Geography
    • Bordered by Germany in the south
      • Rest is surrounded by water; peninsula of Jutland
    • 443 named islands, only 72 are inhabited
    • Flat with little elevation
    • Temperate climate
denmark cont
Denmark cont.
  • Culture
    • Known as one of the most socially progressive cultures in the world
    • Hans Christian Andersen and his fairy tales
      • The Little Mermaid, The Emperor’s New Clothes, The Ugly Duckling
    • Most popular sport is football
  • Places to visit
    • Copenhagen
    • Odense
    • Århus
    • Herning
    • Silkeborg
    • Esbjerg
    • Aalborg
  • History
    • Earliest known human presence in the area is from approximately 780,000 years ago
    • Permanent settlements established within the last 6,000 years even though humans were thought to have been there during the Upper Paleolithic period
  • Geography
    • Pennines Mountains are known as the “backbone of England”
    • Lowlands to the south of mountains
      • Green, rolling hills
    • Temperate maritime climate
england cont
England cont.
  • Culture
    • Stonehenge, Devil's Arrows, Rudston Monolith and Castlerigg built in prehistoric times
    • Folklore has developed over many centuries
      • pixies, giants, elfs, bogeymen, trolls, goblins and dwarves
  • Places to visit
    • Stonehenge
    • Hadrian’s Wall
    • London
      • Westminster Abbey
      • Big Ben
      • Tower Of London
    • Bath
    • York
    • Canterbury
    • Oxford
  • History
    • Settlement became possible 11,000 to 13,000 years ago when the glaciers melted
    • Pulli settlement is the oldest known settlement
    • Fishing and hunting communities existed around 6500 BC
  • Geography
    • situated in the northern part of the temperate climate zone and in the transition zone between maritime and continental climate
    • Coastline marked by numerous bays, straits, and inlets
estonia cont
Estonia cont.
  • Culture
    • Culture incorporates indigenous heritage with mainstream Nordic and European cultural aspects
    • Been influenced by influenced by the traditions of the adjacent area's various Finnic, Baltic, Slavic and Germanic peoples
  • Places to visit
    • The Jagala Falls
    • The Art Museum of Estonia
    • The Tannenberg Line
    • The Baltic Clint
    • Narva Castle
    • Tallinn
    • Tartu
    • Haapsalu
  • History
    • Settled, at the latest, around 8500 BCE during the Stone Age
    • Artifacts from the first settlers found are similar to those found in Estonia, Russia and Norway
    • Earliest people were hunter-gatherers who used stone tools
  • Geography
    • Country of thousands of lakes and islands
    • Landscape is mostly flat
    • Forests covers 86% of the area
      • Largest forested area in Europe
    • Surface area is still expanding, because of the post-glacial rebound
finland cont
Finland cont.
  • Culture
    • Combines indigenous heritage with common Nordic and European culture
    • Finnish culture may be seen to build upon the relatively ascetic environmental realities
    • Cultural differences between Finland's regions and minor differences in accents and vocabulary
  • Places to visit
    • Helsinki
    • Oulu
    • Espoo
    • Rovaniemi
    • Rauma
    • Kuopio
    • Tampere
  • History
    • Originates from the Latin word Francia, which means “country of the Franks”
    • Oldest traces of human life date from approximately 1,800,000 years ago
    • Strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium, work of gold, copper and bronze, and later with iron
  • Geography
    • There are a number of territories in North America, the Caribbean, South America, the southern Indian Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, and Antarctica
    • Coastal plains in north and west
    • Mountain ranges
      • Alps in south-east
      • Massif Central in south-central
      • Pyrenees in south-west
france cont
France cont.
  • Culture
    • Center of cultural creation for centuries
    • Creation of the Ministry of Culture in 1959 helped preserve the cultural heritage of the country and make it available to the public
  • Places to visit
    • Paris
    • Alsace
    • Aquitaine
    • Auvergne
    • Brittany
    • Burgundy
    • Champagne-Ardenne
    • Corsica
  • History
    • Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Nordic Bronze Age or the Pre-Roman Iron Age
    • Roman Empire resulted from the eastern portion of the Carolingian Empire that was divided in 843
  • Geography
    • Alps in south
    • Shores in north-west and north-east
    • Temperate seasonal climate
germany cont
Germany cont.
  • Culture
    • Culture in Germany has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe
    • Been called Das Land derDichter und Denker (the land of poets and thinker)
  • Places to visit
    • Neuschwanstein
    • Heidelberg Castle
    • Checkpoint Charlie
    • Church of Our Lady, Dresden
    • Marienplatz, Munich
    • Bremerhaven
  • History
    • Evidence of Neanderthal habitation between 128,000 and 24,000 BCE
      • Last known holdout of the Neanderthals
    • First inhabitants were the Phoenicians, around 950 BCE
  • Geography
    • Two coasts
      • East side
        • Sandy Bay
        • Catalan Bay
        • Westside
    • Subtropical-Mediterranean climate
gibraltar cont
Gibraltar cont.
  • Culture
    • Culture reflects the diverse origins
    • British influence remains strong
      • English is the language of government, commerce, education, and the media
  • Places to visit
    • St. Michael's Cave
    • A City Under Siege
    • Apes' Den
  • History
    • First area in Europe where advanced civilization emerged
    • Mix of Roman and Hellenistic cultures formed the Byzantine Empire in 330 ADaround Constantinople
    • Recognized under the London protocol in 1830
  • Geography
    • Mountainous
    • Peninsular
    • Between 1200 and 6000 islands
      • Only 227 are inhabited
    • 8% of Greece is mountains or hills
    • Mediterranean climate
greece cont
Greece cont.
  • Culture
    • Culture evolved over thousands of years ago
    • Ottoman Empire had an influence on the culture
    • Birth place of the Olympic Games
  • Places to visit
    • Mount Olympus
    • Athens
    • Meteora
    • Delphi
    • Corinth
    • Monemvasia
  • History
    • From 9 BC to 4th century it was part of the Roman Empire
    • Officially established in 895
    • Transformed into a Christian realm in 10th century
    • Saint Stephen was the first king of Hungary
  • Geography
    • Flat to rolling plains
    • Mostly hilly, but with a few low mountains
    • Divided into two by its main waterway: the Danube River
    • Continental climate
hungary cont
Hungary cont.
  • Culture
  • Has a rich folk tradition: embroideries, decorated potteries, buildings, and cravings
  • Hungarian Music: Rhapsodies, folk music, composed folk music influenced songs, and Roma music
  • Rich and colorful literature
  • Places to visit:
  • Budapest
  • Debrecen
  • Kiskunsag National Park
  • Lake Balaton
  • Danube Bend
  • Visegrad
ionian islands
Ionian Islands
  • History:
  • Settled by Greeks by an early date
  • The early Eretrian settlement at Kerkyra was displaced by colonists at Corinth
  • Backwater during ancient Greek times
  • Geography:
  • Extend from the coast of southern Albania and to the northwest coast of the Peloponneseus.
  • Comprise of 1.8% of Greece’s land area
  • Comprised of seven principal islands and several smaller ones
ionian islands cont
Ionian Islands cont.
  • Culture:
  • Various depredations: occupation, piracy, earthquakes and time
  • Weaving, embroidery and ceramic tableware have been significant industries
  • Popular cultural expressions include: dances performed on saint days and weddings.
  • Food is strongly linked to each island’s history.
  • Places to visit:
  • Holistic heaven day retreat
  • Trail riders horse trekking
  • Fantasy mini golf
  • Splash fun water park
  • Mirtiotissa Beach
  • Kassiopi
  • Gerakas Bay
  • St. George's castle
  • History:
  • First known settlement was around 8000 BC
  • Covered with ice until the end of the last ice age
  • 9th century Viking raiders plundered Irish monasteries and towns
  • Often called the Irish Republic
  • Ireland’s economy began to grow rapidly in the 1990s, fuelled by foreign investment
  • Geography
  • Northerly point-Inishtrahull island
  • Easterly point- Big Bow Meel Island
  • Southerly point- Fastnet Rock
  • Westerly Point- Tearaught Island
  • Most populated county- Dublin
  • Longest River- Shannon
  • Tallest waterfall- Powerscourt Falls
  • Wettest Place- Maumturk and Partry mountains
  • Driest Place- Dublin city
ireland cont
Ireland cont.
  • Culture
  • Warm hospitality
  • Traditional dishes
  • Vibrant music and breath-taking scenic landscapes
  • Take care of their elders
  • Hurling and Camogie are popular sports
  • Fishing and Golfing are favorite pastimes
  • Equestrian team is very popular
  • Pub is the social venue
  • Holidays replete with customs and traditions
  • Produced famous literary works
  • Places to visit:
  • Giant’s Causeway
  • Newgrange
  • Glendalough
  • Bunratty castle
  • Marble Arch caves
  • Craggaunowen
  • Hill of Tara
  • Cliffs of Moher
  • KilmainhamGaol
  • History
  • Migrations of Indo-European people began around 2000 B.C. till 1000B.C
  • The Estruscan civilization was dominant
  • Overthrown by Romans in the 3rd century B.C\
  • By 264 B.C the south of Italy was led by Cisalpine Gaul
  • Cultural center of the Western World from 13th-16th century
  • Geography
  • Slightly larger than Arizona, long peninsula shaped like a boot
  • Surrounded on the West by the Tyrrhenian Sea and east by the Atlantic
  • Bounded by France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia to the North
  • Largest lake is Garda
  • Several islands form part of Italy, two largest are Sicily and Sardinia
italy cont
Italy cont.
  • Culture
  • Family is the center of the social structure and provides stabilizing influence
  • In the north, nuclear family lives together while in the south the extended family lives together.
  • Both families provide emotional and financial support
  • Appearance calculates social status
  • First impressions last a life time
  • Primary Religion is Roman Catholic
  • Places to visit
  • Rome
  • Florence
  • Venice
  • Cinque Terra
  • Sicily
  • Turin
  • Capri
  • Sorrento
  • Abruzzo
  • San Gimignano
  • Milan
  • Verona and the lakes
  • Bologna
  • Sardinia
  • Puglia
  • History
  • First inhabitants of the Balkan Peninsula were the ancient people known as Illiyrians
  • Ruled by Bulgaria from the 9th century until the Serbs took over in the 12th century
  • Under Ottoman rule, the region grew increasingly more populated by Albanian speakers
  • In 1918, Kosovo became part of the Yugoslav Federation
  • Geography
  • Land locked and mostly mountainous
  • Borders Serbia to the North and East
  • Montenegro to the northwest, Albania to the west, and Macedonia to the south
  • Roughly the size of Connecticut
kosovo cont
Kosovo cont.
  • Culture
  • Most widespread religion is Islam
  • Spoken dialect is Gheg
  • Folk music is very popular
  • Modern music has its origin from western music
  • Closely related to Albanians in Albania
  • Traditions and customs differ from town to town in Kosovo itself
  • Places to visit
  • Pristina
  • Mother Teresa Boulevard
  • Decani
  • Frontline crossing
  • Gracania
  • Peja
  • Prizren
  • Gjeravica Mountain
  • History
  • Poland conquered the territory in 1562 and occupied it until Sweden took over in 1629-1721, and then was passed to Russia in 1721-1918.
  • Latvians remained Russian subjects and preserved their folklore, language and customs
  • Russian Revolution gave Latvia freedom, Latvian republic lasted more than 20 years
  • Latvia eventually became a dictatorship and was occupied with Russian troops and incorporated with the Soviet Union in 1940.
  • German troops occupied the nation from 1941-1944, 1944 Russia took control.
  • Geography
  • Borders Estonia in the North, Lithuania in the South, Baltic Sea with the Gulf of Riga in the West, Russia in the East, and Belarus in the South.
  • Largely a fertile low land with numerous hills, lakes to the east
latvia cont
Latvia cont.
  • Culture
  • Tradition lives on in folk songs, legends, and festivals.
  • Large populations of Lutheran, Catholic, and Orthodox religions
  • Daina the oval art and is a symbol that has shaped and epitomized Lativa’s national identity in the last 2 centuries.
  • Moving from area to area is uncommon, families are huge
  • Children are expected to take care of parents, parents are expected to provide financial and emotional support to children
  • Reserved and formal when dealing with outsiders
  • Personal life is kept separate from business
  • Places to visit
  • Pedvale Open Air Art Museum, Sabile
  • The Dome Cathedral, Riga
  • Jurmala Beach
  • Aglona Basilica
  • Tervete Nature Park
  • History
  • Recognized by the Phoenicians who occupied it and so did the Greeks, Romans, and Carthaginians
  • Dominated by Constantinople
  • Napoleon seized Malta in 1798
  • Geography
  • Five Maltese Islands: Malta, Gozo, Comino, Comminoto, and Filflawith have a combined land area smaller than Philadelphia
  • Located in the Mediterranean Sea
  • South of the Southeast tip of Sicily
malta cont
Malta cont.
  • Culture
  • 91% Roman Catholic
  • Maltese and English are the common languages
  • Music is largely western but consists of background folk guitar music
  • Food is important historically in the development of national identity
  • Maltese folktales
  • Most generous people in the world
  • Places to visit
  • Comino Tower
  • Kenuna Tower
  • Folklore Museum
  • The old prison
  • Gozo 360
  • Calypso’s cave
  • The Inland Sea
  • The Citadel
  • Aurora Opera House
  • Astra Theatre
  • History
  • Used to occupy Bessarabia
  • 16th century Ottoman’s ruled
  • In 1791 Russia acquired most of their territory
  • 1924, USSR established Maldova as an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
  • Sept. 1991 Maldova claimed its Independence
  • Geography
  • Landlocked Republic of hilly planes lying east of the Carpathian Mountains between the Prut and Dniester rivers
  • In between Romania and Ukraine
  • Fertile region with rich black soil covering three quarters of the territory
moldova cont
Moldova cont.
  • Culture
  • Highly influenced by Byzantine culture, Slavic, Magyar, and the Ottoman Turks
  • Present culture has significant impact of Russia, and the urban lifestyle is influenced from the way of living
  • Beginning of the 19th century, a strong west European influence was evident in the Romanian literature and arts
  • Ancient folk ballad “Miorita” plays a main role
  • Places to visit
  • Chisinau town
  • OrheiulVechi
  • Ivancea Village
  • Soroca town
  • Transnistria
  • Saharnamonestary
  • Monastic structure of Tipova
  • History
  • Originated from the Greek Surname “Monoikos” meaning mythological hero
  • Independent country for 800 years
  • 1793- annexed to France, and was placed under Sardinia’s protection by 1815
  • 1861, went under French guardship, but continued to be independent
  • Geography
  • Tiny, hilly wedge driven into the French Mediterranean coast
  • 9 miles east of Nice, France
monaco cont
Monaco cont.
  • Culture
  • French is the official language
  • Mediterranean and Roman Catholic culture emphasizing the family
  • Women work in a variety of fields and politically active
  • Based on century old traditions
  • Marriage is an important family event, divorce is low
  • Places to visit
  • Monte-Carlo
  • Grand Prix
  • The Old town
  • The prince’s palace and palace square
  • Oceanographic museum and aquarium
  • History:
  • Inhabited by Germanic tribes
  • 4-8th century the Franks ruled, became part of Charlemagne’s empire in the 8-9th centuries
  • 16th century came under Spanish rule
  • Geography
  • Coast of the North Sea, twice the size of New Jersey
  • Part of the great plain North and West Europe
  • Low and flat except in Limburg
  • Below sea level
netherlands cont
Netherlands cont.
  • Culture
  • Main language: Dutch
  • No distinct culinary culture
  • Do not invite people who are not closely aquainted
  • Class differences
  • Women make up 38% of labor force and work part-time
  • Gender roles still occupy distinct functions
  • Common basis for marriage is love
  • Free to choose spouses, usually class based
  • Marriage ceremony consists of two formal events
  • Nuclear family is the most common household unit
  • Places to visit
  • Anne Frank Huis
  • Van Gogh Museum
  • Rijksmuseum
  • Heineken Experience
  • Delft
  • Rotterdam
  • Arnhem
  • Hoge de Veluwe National Park
  • Haarlem
  • Utrecht
  • Leiden
  • Maastricht
  • The Hague
  • History
  • Teutonic region
  • 1015 first effective king of Norway Olaf II Haraldsson
  • 1905 the parliament arranged a peaceful separation
  • Geography
  • Western part of the Scandinavian penninsula
  • Extends from the North Sea along the Norwegian Sea to above the Artic Circle
  • Slightly larger than Mexico
  • 70% is inhabitable and covered by mountains, glaciers, moors, and rivers
  • ocean front more than 12,000 mi, Galdho peak at 8100 ft.
norway cont
Norway cont.
  • Culture
  • Different ethnic backgrounds and cultures
  • Modern day it is considered an egalitarian country focused on fairness, open minded-ness, and equal rights
  • Many couples live together without being officially married
  • In business, women are highly respected and obtain equal pay
  • Educated, democratic Norwegian people who are willing to pay high taxes
  • Traditional costume, folklore, and folk music and cultural foods and celebrations
  • Places to visit
  • Oslo
  • Bergen
  • Trondheim
  • Stavanger
  • Kristiansand
  • Tromso
  • Lilliehammer
  • History
  • Founded in 1996 by Mieszko I
  • 1047, both great and little Poland united under the rule of Casimir I the Restorer
  • 1386-Poland merged with Lithuania
  • Between the 14th and 16th centuries they scored military successes
  • Century after 1795 there was no Polish state
  • On Sept 1, 1939 Hitler attacked
  • Occupied by Germany after the Nazi attack on the USSR in June 1941
  • Geography
  • Size of new Mexico
  • Plain, with no natural boundaries, except the Carpathian mountains in the south, and Oder and Neisse rivers in the West
poland cont
Poland cont.
  • Culture
  • Ethnically homogeneous
  • Ukrainian, Belorussian, Slovakian, and Lithuanian minorities reside along the borders
  • German minority in the south of Opole
  • Inward migration from foreigners
  • Places to visit
  • Tatra Mountains
  • Bieszczady Mountains
  • Pieniny Mountains and Dunajec Gorge
  • Mazury lakes
  • Kaszuby
  • Baltic coast
  • Bialowieza Forest
  • Spa towns
  • Biebrza wetlands
  • History
  • First inhabitants were the Lusitanians
  • 140 B.C conquered by Roman Empire
  • In the end, the Visigoths had invaded the entire Iberian peninsula
  • In 1143, won independence from Moorish Spain
  • 1581, Phillip II of Spain Invaded Portugal for 60 years
  • 1640- Portuguese monarchy was restored
  • Geography
  • Occupies the western part of the Iberian peninsula and is about the size of Indiana
  • Crossed by 3 large rivers
  • Divided into 3 geographic areas: The Minho River, Douro River, and Tejo River, remaining is Alentejo
portugal cont
Portugal cont.
  • Culture
  • Foundation of social structure and basis for stability, extended family is close
  • Loyalty comes before other social relationships, business
  • Traditional and conservative
  • Retain a sense of formality and portrayed in extreme politeness
  • Appearance is very important
  • Respects hierarchy
  • Places to visit
  • The Gulbenkian Museum
  • Praca de Comerico
  • St. Jorge’s castle
  • Belem
  • Aveiro city
  • Chiado
  • Evora
  • Ponte 25 de Abril
  • Coimbra city
  • Portugal’s Cristo Rei
  • History
  • From A.D 100-271 most of Romania was the Roman province of Dacia
  • After in the congress of Berlin, became a kingdom in 1881
  • Signed the Axis pact on Nov. 23, 1940 and the following June joined in Germany’s attack on the Soviet union
  • In 1955, joined the Warsaw treaty organization, and united nations
  • Geography
  • Southeast Europe, and slightly smaller than Oregon
  • Carpathian mts.divide Romania’s upper half from north to south and connect near the center of the country with the Transylvanian Alps running east and west
  • North and west of these ranges cause the Transylvanian plateau, to the south and east are the plains of Moldavia and Walachia
  • At 190mi, the Danube river flows through
romania cont
Romania cont.
  • Culture
  • Age and position are respected, older people are viewed as wise and expect senior person to make decisions that benefits the whole group
  • Titles are very important
  • Father is the head of the family
  • Formal, reserved, and do not trust strangers
  • Usually shy and quiet and will open up slowly
  • Places to visit
  • Dabrogea
  • Transylvania
  • Walachia
  • Sibiu
  • Bucharest
  • Brasov
  • Tulcea
  • Oradea
  • History
  • Viking Rurik came to Russia in 862 and found the first Russia dynasty
  • In 1240, Kiev was destroyed by Mongols and Russia was split into numerous smaller dukedoms
  • Ivan IV the terrible was known to find the Russia, Charles XII extended Russia’s boundaries to the West
  • In 1762, Catherine the Great acquired Crimea, Ukraine and part of Poland
  • Geography
  • Occupies most of eastern Europe and North Asia stretches from the Baltic Sea from the West to the Pacific Ocean in the east, also from the Artic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea in the South
  • Borders Finland and Norway in the northwest;
  • Estonia,Latvia,Belarus,Ukraine,Poland and Lithuania in the West
  • Georgia and Azerbaijan in the southwest; and Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, and North Korea along the southern border
russia cont
Russia cont.
  • Culture
  • Family is dependent upon all its members, Live in small apartments often with 2 or 3 generations
  • Most families are small
  • Proud, patriotic songs and poems extol the virtues of their homeland
  • Accept their lives are difficult, appreciate their cultural heritage and expect the rest of the world to admire it
  • Being nosy is common, Russians are extroverts
  • Life once settled on the agricultural village commune
  • Places to visit
  • St. Petersburg
  • Moscow
  • Novgorod
  • Golden Ring Cities
  • Siberia
  • Volga River
  • Smolensk
  • Samara
  • History
  • Picts were the first inhabitants
  • Kenneth McAlpin, King of the Scots ascended the thorne in 843, uniting the Scots and Pictish tribes under the Dal Riada
  • By the 11th century, monarchy has extended to include much of Scotland today
  • 1296, Edward I of England successfully invaded Scotland
  • 1328, English finally recognized Scottish independence
  • Geography
  • Occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain
  • Bounded by English in the South and on the other three sides by water
  • Divided into three physical regions: The Highlands, The Central Lowlands, and Southern Uplands
  • Includes outer and inner Hebrides and other islands off the West Coast and the Orkney and Shetland islands off the north coast
scotland cont
Scotland cont.
  • Culture
  • National anthem is widely accepted
  • English, Scots, and Gaelic are common languages
  • The kilt worn with pipers, and a plaid long piece of tartan wrapped around the upper body is the common uniform
  • Places to visit
  • Stirling
  • Dunblane
  • Perth
  • Glasgow
  • Edinburgh
  • Kilchurn castle
  • Dunollie castle
  • Oban seal
  • Mull
  • History
  • Settled the Balkan peninsula in the 6th and 7th century
  • 1166, Stefan Nemanja a Siberian warrior and chef found the 1st Siberian state
  • 1389, Siberia was defeated in the Battle of Kosovo
  • 1389, absorbed into the Ottoman empire
  • 1878, Serbia gained independence
  • 1918 became part of the kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes
  • Geography
  • Largely mountainious
  • Northeast section is part of Danubian Plain
  • Borders Croatia on the northwest, Hungary on the north, Romania on the northeast, Bulgaria on the east, Macedonia on the south and Albania, Montenegro, Bosnia and Harzegovina on the west
serbia cont
Serbia cont.
  • Culture
  • Slava is an exclusive custom
  • Highly family oriented
  • Kolo is the traditional dance
  • Important Christmas meal is Cesnica which is a special type of bread
  • Christmas is not associated with the parents
  • On Easter, they have Slavic egg decorating
  • Known as misers
  • Places to visit
  • Belgrade
  • Novi Sad
  • Subotica
  • Sokobanja
  • History
  • Fell under Hungarian control from the 10th century till 1918
  • In 1918, the Slovaks joined the Czech lands to form Czechoslovakia
  • In March 1939, Germany occupied Czechoslovakia
  • In 1948, Slovakia was subjected to a centralized Czech dominated government
  • Geography
  • Located in central Europe
  • Rugged mountains, rich in mineral resources with vast forests and pastures
  • Lowland regions in the south
  • Twice the size of Maryland
slovakia cont
Slovakia cont.
  • Culture
  • Includes both folk traditions and modern society
  • Family is center of social structure, together with close friends from the basis of financial and emotional support
  • Value privacy, takes awhile for them to open up to new people
  • Polite and well-respected nature
  • Places to visit
  • Bratislava
  • High Tatra
  • Kosice
  • KransnohorskePodhradie
  • Dargov
  • Betliar
  • Slovak Karst national park
  • Poprad
  • History
  • Originally inhabited by Celts, Iberians, and Basques, in 206 B.C. became a part of the Roman Empire
  • In 1923, Gen. Miguel Primo de Rivera became dictator
  • Geography
  • Occupies 85% of the Iberian peninsula, shares it with Portugal
  • A broad central plateau slopes to the south and east, crossed by a series of mountain ranges and river valleys
  • Off of Spain’s east coast lies the Balearic islands
spain cont
Spain cont.
  • Culture
  • Family is the basis of social structure which includes both nuclear and extended
  • Majority are Roman Catholic
  • Structure and size of the family vary
  • Familial networks have become less tight
  • Places to visit
  • Cadiz
  • Salamanca
  • Valencia
  • Madrid
  • Barcelona
  • Andalucia, Costa del Sol Granada
  • Seville
  • Malaga
  • San sabastian
  • Bilbao
  • History
  • In the 11th century, Olaf Skottkonung became the 1st Swedish king
  • In 1520, Christian II conquered Sweden but lead Swedish personages to death
  • Played a leading role in the second phase of the thirty years war
  • Geography
  • Occupies the eastern part of the Scandinavian peninsula
  • Fourth largest country in Europe
  • 1/10th larger than California
  • In the north are mountains and lakes
  • To the south and east are lowlands, and fertile areas of forest, valley, and plain
sweden cont
Sweden cont.
  • Culture
  • Egalitarian in nature, humble, and find boasting unacceptable
  • Prefer listening to others than having their own voice heard, speak softly and calmly
  • Rarely take hospitality, often give thanks
  • Family is extremely important
  • Places to visit
  • Stockholm
  • Uppsala
  • Gothenburg
  • Crystal country
  • Kalmar
  • Gota canal
  • Swedish Lapland
  • Operan
  • History
  • 1921, league of cantons in the Holy Roman Empire
  • Treaty of Westphalia gave Switzerland its independence
  • 1815, the congress of Vienna granted the neutrality and recognized its independence
  • Geography
  • Tallest peak: Dufourspitze
  • Composed of mountainous plateau, bordered by the great bulk of Alps in the south, and the Jura mountains on the northwest
switzerland cont
Switzerland cont.
  • Culture
  • Marriage is not arranged, late marriage and divorce is common
  • Extended families
  • Privacy and discretion are key values in social interaction
  • Do not speak to strangers
  • Kind and politeness are common characteristics
  • Places to visit
  • The Jungfrau Region
  • Chateau de Chillon
  • Fasnacht Spring carnival
  • Swiss national park
  • Geneva
  • The Matterhorn
  • St. Moritz
  • The Rhine Falls
  • History
  • 1900 BC the Hittite Empire
  • 1250 BC the Trojan war
  • 547 BC Cyrus of Persia invades and conquers
  • 129 BC becomes the Roman Province of Asia
  • 1000s-1200s Crusader armies cross
  • 1682- Peter the Great initiates Russo-Turkish rivalry
  • 1914- Allies with Germany in WWI
  • 1939- Remains neutral with Germany in WWII
  • Geography
  • Northeast end of the Mediterranean sea in Southwest Europe and Asia
  • Black sea in the north and in the west is the Aegean sea
  • Borders: Greece and Bulgaria to the west, Russia, Ukraine and Romania to the north, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran to the east and Syria and Iraq in the south
turkey cont
Turkey cont.
  • Culture
  • Common religion is Islam
  • Depends on the region and ethnic background of its inhabitants
  • Clothing is similar to western culture
  • Family plays a big part, although it has changed to modern day demands
  • Usually eat all 3 meals together, but because of hectic schedules it is happening less
  • Places to visit
  • NemrutDagi
  • Pamukkle
  • Bodrum
  • Kusadasi
  • Ankara
  • Lycian coast
  • Cappadocia
  • Ephesus
  • Antalya
  • Istanbul