Digestive System Audrey Simmons
The Digestive System My Drawing of the Digestive System
The Digestive System Function of the Digestive System • The organs of the digestive system function to carry out digestion, ingestion, propulsion, absorption, and defecation.
The Digestive System Alimentary organs and their function • Mouth • Mechanical breakdown of food; begins chemical digestion of carbohydrates • Pharynx • Connects mouth with esophagus • Esophagus • Peristalsis pushes food to stomach • Stomach • Secretes acid and enzymes. Mixes food with secretions to begin enzymatic digestion of proteins
The Digestive System Alimentary organs and their function • Small Intestine • Mixes food with bile and pancreatic juice. Final enzymatic breakdown of food molecules; main site of nutrient absorption • The Duodenum-25cm long, 5cm in diameter. The shortest portion and most fixed point of the small intestine. • The Jejunum- mobile. Greater diameter, thicker wall, and more vascular than the ileum. • The Ileum-smaller than the jejunum, has more lymph nodules than the jejunum and a higher bacteria population.
The Digestive System Alimentary organs and their function • Large Intestine • Absorbs water and electrolytes to form feces • Cecum- a dilated, pouchlike structure • Appendix-no known digestive function, contains lymphatic tissue (defense) • Colon-Recover water that has entered the alimentary canal. Divided into 4 sections, ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid. • Rectum-Regulates elimination of feces • Anal canal (anus)-eliminates feces from the body
The Digestive System Alimentary organs and their function • Sphincters • Internal & external sphincter muscles-involuntary and voluntary muscles guarding the anus • Ileocecal sphincter-joins the small intestine’s ileum to the large intestine’s cecum. Normally remains constricted. • Pyloric sphincter-muscle that acts as a valve in the stomach to control gastric emptying.
The Digestive System Accessory glands and their function • Salivary glands • Secrete saliva, which contains enzymes that initiate breakdown of carbohydrates • Liver • Produces bile, which emulsifies fat • Gallbladder • Stores bile and introduces it into small intestine • Pancreas • Produces and secretes pancreatic juice, containing digestive enzymes and bicarbonate ions, into small intestine
The Digestive System Types of Digestion • Digestion • The breaking down of food • Physical • Breaks down large pieces into smaller ones without altering their chemical composition • Chemical • Breaks food down into simpler chemicals
The Digestive System Digestion of the specifics • Carbohydrate • Begins in the mouth • The enzyme salivary amylase starts breaking down the sugars • Small intestine • Pancreatic amylase breaks Carbs down further into disaccharides • Protein • Stomach • Pepsin is secreted and activated by hydrogen ions and hydrolyze proteins into peptides • Small intestine • Carboxypeptidase and chymotrypsin further break protein into simple peptides and amino acids
The Digestive System Digestion of the specifics • Lipids • Mouth • Lingual lipase starts to slightly break apart the lipids • Stomach • Gastric lipase produced to further break down • Churning of the stomach also helps • Small intestine • Pancreatic lipase breaks lipids down into monoglycerides and fatty acids
The Digestive System Crohn’s disease • Chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract • Symptoms • Persistent Diarrhea • Rectal bleeding • Urgent need to move bowels • Abdominal cramps and pain • Sensation of incomplete defecation • Constipation • Prevalence • May affect 700,000 Americans • More prevalent among ages 15-35 • Treatment • Medication that suppresses inflammation • Good diet and nutrition • Surgery: removal of the diseased bowel
The Digestive System Gastroesophageal reflux disease • When the contents of the stomach leak back into the esophagus • Symptoms • Irritate/damage the esophagus • Heartburn • Nausea • Prevalence • Very common • Affects 10-20 million in the U.S. • Treatment • Antacids • Proton pump inhibitors-decrease acid produced in stomach • H2 blockers-decreased acid released in stomach
The Digestive System Works cited • http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=AP15806 • http://www.physiologymodels.info/digestion/proteins.htm • http://instruct.westvalley.edu/granieri/bio45lipid2.pdf • http://www.ccfa.org/what-are-crohns-and-colitis/what-is-crohns-disease/ • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001311/ • http://www.sts.org/patient-information/esophageal-surgery/gastroesophageal-reflux-disease • Butler, Jackie, and Ricki Lewis. "Digestive System." Hole's Human Anatomy & Physiology. By David Shier. 11th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007. N. pag. Print. • Campbell, Neil A., and Jane B. Reece. Biology. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2002. Print.
The Endocrine System Function of the Endocrine system • Named because the cells, tissues, and organs that comprise it (the endocrine glands) secrete hormones into the internal environment of the body
The Endocrine System Homeostasis • The body’s maintenance of a stable internal environment • Homeostasis in the endocrine system is a stable amount of hormones in the body at all times
The Endocrine System Negative Feedback • A negative feedback is when a response is reduced and eventually stops • The hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary gland’s release of tropic hormones (hormones that make other glands secrete hormones.) The hypothalamus constantly receives info on the homeostasis and employs negative feedback when levels of a certain hormone is too high
The Endocrine System My drawing of the endocrine system
The Endocrine System The Glands and Their Hormones • Hypothalamus • Hormones released from the posterior pituitary and hormones that regulate the anterior pituitary • Pituitary gland • Growth hormone-stimulates growth and metabolic functions • Thyroid gland • Calcitonin-lowers blood calcium level • Parathyroid gland • Parathyroid hormone-raises blood calcium level
The Endocrine System The Gland and Their Hormones • Pancreas • Glucagon-raises blood glucose level • Adrenal glands • Epinephrine-raises blood glucose level • Gonads • Androgens-support sperm formation; promote development & maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics • Pineal gland • Melatonin-involved in biological rhythms
The Endocrine System Insulin • Beta cells in the pancreas produce insulin when there is too much glucose in the blood • Insulin leaves the pancreas via exocytosis • Insulin takes glucose to body cells for fuel in cellular respiration
The Endocrine System Diabetes • Type I • Pancreas produces little or no insulin • Type II • The body doesn’t use the insulin efficiently • Signs & symptoms • Thirst, frequent urination, lethargy, vision changes, sugar in urine, fruity breath • Prevalence • 1-450 develop type I, increased type II in kids • Treatment • Insulin injections, balanced diet, exercise
The Endocrine System Addison’s disease • Deficiency of the adrenal gland hormones, cortisol or aldosterone • Symptoms • Fatigue, muscle weakness, loss of appetite, freckling, nausea, etc. • Prevalence • 1-100,000 have it, rare • JFK had it • Treatment • Avoid stress, replace hormone, avoid infection
The Endocrine System Works Cited • http://jdrf.org/life-with-t1d/frequently-asked-questions/#types • http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/understanding-addisons-disease • http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/endocrorgs.gif • http://gimnasio-altair.com/tps/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/24hendocrineglad.jpg • http://www.medicalook.com/diseases_images/diabetes1.jpg • http://www.daviddarling.info/images/Kennedy_Addisons.jpg • Butler, Jackie, and Ricki Lewis. "Digestive System." Hole's Human Anatomy & Physiology. By David Shier. 11th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007. N. pag. Print. • Campbell, Neil A., and Jane B. Reece. Biology. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2002. Print.
The Excretory System Excretory system • Function • The systems that excrete wastes from the body. • The system of organs that regulates the amount of water in the body and filters and eliminates from the blood the wastes produced by metabolism. • Organs • The principal organs of the excretory system are the kidneys, ureters, urethra, and urinary bladder.
The Excretory System Organs and their function • Kidneys • A pair of bean-shaped organs in the back part of the abdominal cavity that form and excrete urine, regulate fluid and electrolyte balance, and act as endocrine glands. • Ureters • Muscularducts or tubes conveying the urine from the kidneys to the bladder or cloaca. • Bladder • A distensible membranous sac in which the urine excreted from the kidneys is stored. • Urethra • The membranous tube that extends from the urinary bladder to the exterior and conveys urine.
The Excretory System The kidney
The Excretory System Nitrogenous Wastes • Ammonia • Very soluble but can only be tolerated at small amounts • Animals that excrete ammonia need access to a lot of water • Fish excrete ammonia • Ammonia molecules diffuse into the surrounding water • Most of the ammonia is lost as ammonium ions
The Excretory System Nitrogenous Wastes • Urea • Relativity nontoxic substance produced in the vertebrate liver by a metabolic cycle that combines ammonia with carbon dioxide. • Mammals, most adult amphibians, sharks, and some fish and turtles mainly excrete urea. • The circulatory system carries it to the urea to the excretory systems’ organ the kidneys.
The Excretory System Nitrogenous Wastes • Uric acid • Relativity nontoxic but is largely insoluble in water and can be excreted as a semisolid waste. • Perfect for animals that have little access to water • Insects, land snails, many reptiles, including birds excretes uric acid
The Excretory System Close up of a part of a kidney
The Excretory System Structures of the nephron • Renal cortex • The outer part of the kidney • Renal medulla • The inner part of the kidney • Collecting duct • Passes into the renal medulla. Empties into a minor calyx in renal papilla. • Juxtamedullary nephron • Have corpuscles close to renal medulla. Important in regulating water balance. • Cortical nephron • Have short nephron groups that don’t reach the real medulla
The Excretory System Nephron processes • Filtration • The excretory tubule collects a filtrate from the blood. Water and solutes are forced by blood pressure across the selectively permeable membranes of a cluster of capillaries and into the excretory tubule. • Reabsorption • The transport epithelium reclaims valuable substances from the filtrate and returns them to the body fluids.
The Excretory System Nephron Processes • Secretion • Other substances, such as toxins and excess ions, are extracted from body fluids and added to the contents of the excretory tube • Excretion • The filtrate leaves the systems and the body.
The Excretory System Interstitial Neprhitis • Inflammation of the spaces between the tubules of the kidneys. When these spaces become inflamed, the kidneys cannot function effectively and waste is improperly filtered. • Symptoms • decreased urine output, fever, drowsiness, confusion, nausea, vomiting, rash, generalized body swelling and weight gain • Prevalence • Short-term, common disorder. Can cause permanent damage if a chronic case. • Treatment • corticosteroids and anti-inflammatory medications to decrease swelling quickly. • Patients should follow a salt- and fluid-restricted diet as well.
The Excretory System Cystitis (urinary tract infection) • Inflammation of the bladder most often caused by a bacterial infection that enters the body through the urethra and travels upward into the bladder. • Symptoms • Strong urge to urinate, burning during urination, blood in the urine, urine with a strong odor, discomfort and pressure in the abdomen and pelvis and a low fever. • Prevalence • Very common, more common in females. • Treatment • Antibiotics that patients either take orally or receive as injections directly into the bladder.
The Excretory System Works cited • http://www.marietta.edu/~mcshaffd/aquatic/sextant/osmwaste.gif • https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcThLcIBbYEDVz6aUkaHbGhHLxqH5NNcHN8xbzKwZfSEwQ7iAN9Q • http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/excretory+system?s=t • http://www.livestrong.com/article/191406-disorders-in-the-excretory-system/ • Butler, Jackie, and Ricki Lewis. "Digestive System." Hole's Human Anatomy & Physiology. By David Shier. 11th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007. N. pag. Print. • Campbell, Neil A., and Jane B. Reece. Biology. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2002. Print.
The Immune System Function • Protect the body (from infection) • To keep infectious organisms (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) out of the body • Destroy infections that do invade the body
The Immune System Organs • Adenoids • Appendix • Blood vessels • Bone marrow • Lymph nodes • Lymphatic vessels • Peyer’s patches • Spleen • Thymus • Tonsils
The Immune System Recognizing pathogens • An immune response start when B cells or T cells react to a foreign antigen in the body. • Their reaction causes plasma cells to release antibodies into the lymph, then the antibodies are transported through the blood, and then the entire body • The antibodies find and help destroy the harmful antigens
The Immune System Active Immunity • Naturally acquired (Ex: chickenpox) • Develops after a primary immune response • A response to exposure to a live pathogen and development of symptoms • Artificially acquired (Ex: polio vaccine) • A person gets a killed or weakened strand of a bacteria or virus • This stimulates the immune system without harming the person
The Immune System Passive Immunity • Artificially acquired (Ex: antiserum for Hepatitis A) • An injection of antibodies or antitoxins • Passive because the body doesn’t produce antibodies • Only short term immunity • Naturally acquired (Ex: breast feeding) • Antibodies passed to a fetus or baby from a pregnant or nursing woman • Short-term immunity for baby
The Immune System Humoral immunity • Humoral refers to fluid • Kind of immune response stimulated by B cells • Plasma cells produce and secrete up to 2000 antibody molecules a second • Body fluids carry antibodies, which then destroy bad antigens
The Immune System Cell-mediated immunity • T cells attach to foreign, antigen-bearing cells and interact cell-to-cell contact
The Immune System B and T Lymphocytes • Activation • T cells • requires an antigen-presenting cell (a cell with fragments of antigens attached to it) in order to be activated • activation begins when a macrophage phagocytizes a bacterium • B cells • become activated when it encounters an antigen that fits its antigen receptors • Most need T cells help to activate
The Immune System B and T Lymphocytes • Action • T Cells • Provide cellular immune response in which T cells interact directly with the antigens to destroy them • B cells • Provide humoral immune response in which B cells interact indirectly, producing antibodies that destroy the antigens
The Immune System Antibiotics and viruses • Antibiotics work to destroy living bacteria • They don’t work against viruses because they aren’t living • Because viruses are not “alive” antibiotics can’t “kill” them