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Digestive System

Digestive System

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Digestive System

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  1. Digestive System Purpose: Digestion, absorption and elimination

  2. Absorption: process which nutrients pass through the lining of your digestive system into your blood

  3. Mouth • Teeth~ 32 of them • Tongue • Has taste buds (salty, sweet, sour, bitter • Aids in the act of swallowing • Saliva • 3 glands (under tongue, behind each side of jaw)

  4. DigestionChemical Mechanical • Amylase • Enzyme that breaks down glucose • Secreted by saliva • HCl • pH 2 • Mastication • Act of chewing

  5. Esophagus • Esophagus • Muscular tube which food passes • extends from the back of the mouth to the stomach • Peristalsis • Involuntary muscular contraction that helps food move through the digestive system

  6. Stomach (gastro) • Hollow organ • Second stage of digestion • Has 3 layers of muscles that move the food around • Can hold 1 liter of food but as much as 1.5 liters • Food is in the stomach about 2-6 hours

  7. Chyme • semi-fluid food from stomach

  8. Small intestines • All nutrients are absorbed here • Valve at each end to keep food where it is supposed to be. • Duodenum~ 1st part

  9. Duodenum • Receives chyme • Carbohydrate, protein, and lipid digestion begins • Absorbs nutrients

  10. Ileum • Final stage of nutrient absorption • Protection against microorganisms

  11. Villa • Finger like projections • increases surface area • Diffusion occurs: particles move from high concentration to low concentration

  12. Large Intestine Transverse Last stage of digestion Remaining waste ends up here Function is to reabsorb water from remaining waste Remaining waste = feces, stool Descending colon Ascending colon Transverse Sigmoid colon

  13. Spleen • organ that recycles old red-blood cells • Helps with immunity

  14. Liver • Convert glucose to glycogen • Produces Bile • Filter harmful substances • Stores fat soluble vitamins and B12 • Maintains proper glucose level in blood • Produces 80% of cholesterol

  15. Gallbladder • Small, bag like organ that stores bile • Bile helps with fat digestion • Bile neutralizes certain acids in foods • Gallstones made from salt, calcium, and cholesterol

  16. Pancreas • Produces Insulin • Produces enzymes • Stores enzymes • Secretes bicarbonate and other enzymes to neutralize acids in the duodenum