Cell organelles and features
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Cell Organelles and Features. Plasma/Cell Membrane. Found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes Structure: Composed of: phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins Organization: Phospholipids form a bilayer Proteins and cholesterol are embedded in the bilayer. Cell-Membrane = Fluid Mosaic Model.

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Plasma cell membrane
Plasma/Cell Membrane

  • Found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes

  • Structure:

    • Composed of: phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins

    • Organization:

      • Phospholipids form a bilayer

      • Proteins and cholesterol are embedded in the bilayer

Cell membrane fluid mosaic model
Cell-Membrane = Fluid Mosaic Model

  • Membrane’s lipids and proteins move laterally within the bilayer

  • The “pattern” of the mosaic is always changing

Function of the membrane components
Function of the Membrane Components

  • Phospholipids

    • Control what enter and exit the cell

    • Give structure to the cell

  • Proteins

    • Control what enter and exit the cell

    • Interact with external environment

    • Facilitate chemical reactions

    • Receive signals

  • Cholesterol

    • Maintain fluidity of cell


  • Structure:

    • Nucleoplasm

    • Nuclear envelope with nuclear pores

      • Double membrane

    • Nucleolus

  • Contains DNA

Functions of nucleus
Functions of Nucleus

  • Nucleoplasm

    • Surrounds and protects DNA

  • Nuclear envelope and nuclear pores

    • Controls what enters and exits the nucleus

  • Nucleolus

    • Production of ribosomes (structures that synthesize proteins)


  • NOT technically organelles

  • Made of proteins and RNA, but have NO membrane

  • Some ribosomes are free-floating in cytoplasm others are bound to the endoplasmic reticulum

Endoplasmic reticulum er
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

  • Structure: system of membranous tubes and sacs (cristernae)

  • Two types of ER: Rough and Smooth

    • Rough ER is covered with ribosomes

    • Smooth ER lacks ribosomes

Function of the er
Function of the ER

  • Both types of ER serve as intracellular highway along which molecules move from one part of the cell to the other

  • RER

    • Produces phospholipids and proteins

  • SER

    • Build lipids, such as cholesterol and steroid hormones

    • Detoxifies blood and poisons

Golgi apparatus
Golgi Apparatus

  • Structure: system of flattened, membranous sacs

  • Function:

    • Modifies proteins that it receives from the RER

    • Exports protein to the appropriate location


  • Structure:

    • small, spherically shaped sacs

    • Surrounded by single membrane

  • Vesicles are classified by their contents

  • Often migrate and merge with plasma membrane to release contents

  • Types of Vesicles: lysosomes, peroxisomes, glyoxysomes, endosomes


  • Contain digestive enzymes

  • Created by the Golgi apparatus

  • Responsible for breaking down cells when it is time for the cell to die = autolysis

Food Vacuoles are referred to as endosomes


  • Contain enzymes that breakdown alcohol and drugs into peroxide (H2O2)

  • Neutralize free radicals

  • Not created by the Golgi apparatus

  • Special type of peroxisome = glycoxysomes

    • Found in seeds of some plants

Ribosomes er golgi and vesicles all play a role in protein synthesis
Ribosomes, ER, Golgi, and Vesicles all play a role in protein synthesis

  • Proteins are assembled by ribosomes on the RER

  • Vesicles transport proteins to the Golgi apparatus

  • Golgi modify proteins and package them into new vesicles

  • Vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane to release proteins outside the cell

  • Vesicles containing enzymes that remain inside the cell form lysosomes, peroxisomes, endosomes, etc.

Mitochondria protein synthesis

  • Structure:

    • Outer and inner membrane

      • Inner membrane has many folds = cristae

    • Contain DNA

  • Function: transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP (cellular respiration)

Cytoskeleton protein synthesis

  • Structure: Network of thin tubes and filaments that crisscross in the cytosol

  • Three major components:

    • Microtubules

    • Microfilaments

    • Intermediate filaments

  • Function:

    • Give shape and support to the cell

    • Acts as a system of internal tracks for intracellular movement

Cytoskeleton protein synthesis

Cilia and flagella
Cilia and Flagella protein synthesis

  • Structure: Hairlike structures that extend from the surface of the cell

  • Part of the cytoskeleton

  • Function: Assist in movement

Centrioles protein synthesis

  • Structure: two short cylinders of microtubules at right angles

    • In the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope

  • Part of the cytoskeleton of animal cells

  • Function: organize microtubules during cell division