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INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY. DEFINITIONS. Anatomy “ to cut apart ” Study of Bodily Structure Includes: Systemic or Regional Gross or Microscopic Developmental Imaging. DEFINITIONS continued. Physiology “ study of nature ” Study of Bodily Function Includes: Cell Physiology

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definitions
DEFINITIONS
  • Anatomy
    • “to cut apart”
    • Study of Bodily Structure
    • Includes:
      • Systemic or Regional
      • Gross or Microscopic
      • Developmental
      • Imaging
definitions continued
DEFINITIONS continued
  • Physiology
    • “study of nature”
    • Study of Bodily Function
    • Includes:
      • Cell Physiology
      • Pathophysiology
      • Immunology
      • Exercise Physiology
levels of structural organization
LEVELS OF structural ORGANIZATION
  • Chemical
    • Atoms, Molecules
  • Cellular
    • Organelles, Cells
  • Tissue
    • Groups of Cells
  • Organ
    • 2 or more tissue types
    • Specific functions
    • Recognizable shape
levels of structural organization continued
LEVELS OF structural ORGANIZATION continued
  • System
    • Groups of organs with common functions
    • 11 organ systems
  • Organismal
    • Highest level
    • All parts of organism
11 organ systems
11 Organ Systems
  • Integumentary – external body covering; protection & sensation
  • Skeletal – internal support; protection
  • Muscular - movement
  • Nervous – fast-acting control system
  • Endocrine – hormonal control; secreted by glands
11 organ systems1
11 Organ Systems
  • Cardiovascular – Transports via circulating blood
  • Lymphatic – Returns fluid leaked from blood; immune defense
  • Respiratory – exchanges gases (O2 & CO2) with environment
  • Digestive –Breakdown & absorption of food; elimination of undigestable food
11 organ systems2
11 Organ Systems
  • Urinary – Removes most metabolic wastes from the blood as urine
  • Reproductive – produces offspring
homeostasis
HOMEOSTASIS
  • Homeostasis
    • Maintaining a relatively stable internal environment, regardless of external conditions.
    • Allows changes within narrow limits.
    • “Dynamic Equilibrium”
    • Regulated by feedback mechanisms
homeostatic control mechanisms
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
  • 3 Components
    • Receptor – to detect changes
    • Control Center – to determine set point (normal) and appropriate response to deviations
    • Effector – to respond to change
homeostatic control mechanisms1
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
  • Negative Feedback System
    • Common
    • Reverses Change
    • Results in Fluctuations about Set Point
    • e.g. control of body temperature
  • Positive Feedback System
    • Rare
    • Change is increased
    • May be Harmful (induced by pathogens)
    • e.g. lactation, blood clot formation
terminology
TERMINOLOGY
  • Anatomical Position
    • Erect Stance, Palms Forward
  • Directional Terms
    • Explain Relative Location of Body Parts
    • Many Paired Opposites
  • Regional Terms
    • Refer to Specific Body Parts, Regions
    • Divided into Anterior & Posterior Landmarks
terminology continued
TERMINOLOGY continued
  • Body Planes & Sections
    • Frontal (Coronal)
      • Vertical, Divides into Anterior & Posterior
    • Transverse
      • Horizontal, Divides into Superior & Inferior
    • Sagittal (Para- & Mid-)
      • Vertical, Divides into Right & Left
    • Oblique
      • Diagonal, Between Vertical & Horizontal
terminology continued1
TERMINOLOGY continued
  • Body Cavities (Protect & Allow for Growth/Change)
  • Dorsal & Ventral form during embryological development
    • Dorsal
      • Cranial - Brain
      • Spinal or Vertebral – Spinal Cord
body cavities continued
BODY CAVITIES continued
  • Ventral
    • Thoracic
      • Pleural - Lungs
      • Mediastinal – Between Lungs
      • Pericardial – Heart; division of mediastinal
    • Abdominopelvic
      • Abdominal (Peritoneal)
      • Pelvic