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Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy and Physiology

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Anatomy and Physiology

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  1. Anatomy and Physiology Heart, Lungs, Pancreas, Liver, Kidneys and Skin B. Paul White, MD HOD ID#: 2078

  2. HEART

  3. HEART • Hollow, muscular organ • 300 grams (size of a fist) • 4 chambers • found in chest between lungs • surrounded by membrane called Pericardium • Pericardial space is fluid-filled to nourish and protect the heart.

  4. HEART ANATOMY • The heart is a complex muscular pump that maintains blood pressure and flow through the lungs and the rest of the body. • The heart pumps about 100,000 times and moves 7200 liters (1900 gallons) of blood every day.

  5. HEART ANATOMY • The heart has four chambers. • Two atria act as collecting reservoirs. • Two ventricles act as pumps. • The heart has four valves for: • Pumping action of the heart. • Maintaining unidirectional blood flow.

  6. Functions of the Heart • Generates blood pressure • Routes blood • Heart separates pulmonary and systemic circulation • Ensures one-way blood flow • Heart valves ensure one-way flow

  7. Functions of the Heart • Regulates blood supply • Changes in contraction rate and force match blood delivery to changing metabolic needs • Most healthy people can increase cardiac output by 300–500% • Heart failure is the inability of the heart to provide enough blood flow to maintain normal metabolism

  8. Cardiac Cycle • The heart is two pumps that work together, right (pulmonary) and left (systemic) half • Repetitive, sequential contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole) of heart chambers • Blood moves through circulatory system from areas of higher to lower pressure. • Contraction of heart produces the pressure

  9. Cardiac Cycle

  10. HEART • Deoxygenated blood returns to the heart via the superior and inferior vena cava, enters the right atrium, passes into the right ventricle, and from here it is ejected to the pulmonary artery. • Oxygenated blood returning from the lungs enters the left atrium via the pulmonary veins, passes into the left ventricle, and is then ejected to the aorta.

  11. Blood Vessels • Blood vessels are divided into a pulmonary circuit and systemic circuit. • Artery - vessel that carries blood away from the heart. Usually oxygenated • Vein - vessel that carries blood towards the heart. Usually deoxygenated. • Capillary - a small blood vessel that allow diffusion of gases, nutrients and wastes between plasma and interstitial fluid.

  12. Blood Vessels • Systemic vessels • Transport blood through the body part from left ventricle and back to right atrium • Pulmonary vessels • Transport blood from right ventricle through lungs and back to left atrium • Blood vessels and heart are regulated to ensure blood pressure is high enough for blood flow to meet metabolic needs of tissues

  13. Blood Flow

  14. LUNGS • Lungs comprised of • Airways • Alveoli

  15. What do the lungs do? • Primary function is gas exchange • Let oxygen move in • Let carbon dioxide move out

  16. How do the lungs do this? • First, air has to move to the region where gas exchange occurs. • For this, you need a normal ribcage and respiratory muscles that work properly (among other things).

  17. Conducting Airways • Air travels via laminar flow through the conducting airways comprised of the following: trachea, lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, subsegmental bronchi, small bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles.

  18. How do the lungs do this? • The airways then branch further to become transitional/respiratory bronchioles. • The transitional/respiratory zones are made up of respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli.

  19. The Airways • Conducting zone: no gas exchange occurs • Anatomic dead space • Transitional zone: alveoli appear, but are not great in number • Respiratory zone: contain the alveolar sacs • Over 8 million branches Weibel ER: Morphometry of the Human Lung. Berlin and New York: Springer-Verlag, 1963

  20. How does gas exchange occur? • Numerous capillaries are wrapped around alveoli. • Gas diffuses across this alveolar-capillary barrier. • This barrier is as thin as 0.3 μm in some places and has a surface area of 50-100 square meters!

  21. Gas Exchange • Diffusion Barrier crossed by O2 moving from air to blood and CO2 from blood to air is made up of: • 1. an aqueous surface film • 2. epithelial cells of alveolus • 3. interstitial layer • 4. endothelial cells of capillaries • 5. blood plasma • 6. membrane of RBCs

  22. Alveoli • Approximately 300 million alveoli • 1/3 mm diameter • Total surface area about 85 sq. meters (size of a tennis court)

  23. Gas Exchange From Netter Atlas of Human Anatomy, 1989

  24. Control of Ventilation • Arterial PO2 • When PO2 is VERY low, ventilation increases • Arterial PCO2 • The most important regulator of ventilation, small increases in PCO2, greatly increases ventilation • Arterial pH • As hydrogen ions increase, alveolar ventilation increases, but hydrogen ions cannot diffuse into CSF as well as CO2


  26. Anatomy of the Pancreas • 5" long by 1" thick • Head close to curve in C-shaped duodenum • Main duct joins common bile duct from liver • Sphincter of Oddi on major duodenal papilla • Opens 4" below pyloric sphincter

  27. Anatomy of the Pancreas Gray’s Anatomy of the Human Body

  28. Anatomy of the Pancreas Exocrine glands have ducts that carry their secretions to specific locations. Digestive gland that secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum through the pancreatic duct. Gray’s Anatomy of the Human Body Robbins Basic Pathology

  29. Histology of the Pancreas

  30. Histology of the Pancreas • Acini- dark clusters • 99% of gland • produce pancreatic juice • Islets of Langerhans • 1% of gland • pale staining cells • produce hormones

  31. Bicarbonate Ion Production

  32. Anatomy Endocrine Pancreatic islets produce insulin and glucagon Exocrine Acini produce digestive enzymes Regions: Head, body, tail Secretions Pancreatic juice (exocrine) Trypsin Chymotrypsin Carboxypeptidase Pancreatic amylase Pancreatic lipases Enzymes that reduce DNA and ribonucleic acid Functions of the Pancreas

  33. Bicarbonate Ion Production

  34. LIVER

  35. LIVER • Largest gland in the body (1.4 kg – 3 lbs.) • Produces bile • Stored in GB • Emulsifies fats • Involved in metabolism • Diaphramatic and visceral surface • Right and left lobes • Porta hepatis = major vessels and nerves • Right and left hepatic ducts, common bile, common

  36. Histology of the Liver • Hepatocytes arranged in lobules • Sinusoids in between hepatocytes are blood-filled spaces • Kupffer cells phagocytize microbes & foreign matter

  37. Histology of the Liver

  38. Histology of the Liver

  39. Functions of the Liver • Bile production • Salts emulsify fats, contain pigments as bilirubin • Storage • Glycogen, fat, vitamins, copper and iron • Nutrient interconversion • Detoxification • Hepatocytes remove ammonia and convert to urea • Phagocytosis • Kupffer cells phagocytize worn-out and dying red and white blood cells, some bacteria • Synthesis • Albumins, fibrinogen, globulins, heparin, clotting factors

  40. Bile • About 600 ml of bile is produced daily • Bile acid • Phospholipids • Cholesterol • Bilirubin • Waste products • Electrolytes • Mucin


  42. KIDNEYS • Play a major role in maintaining homeostasis • Maintain water balance • Regulate the quantity and concentration of ECF ions • Regulate the plasma volume • Regulate pH by controlling elimination of acid and base in urine • Maintain osmolarity • Regulate the concentration of plasma constituents (e.g. electrolytes and water)

  43. KIDNEYS • Kidneys have excellent blood supply: 0.5% total body weight but ~20% of Cardiac Output. • Kidneys process plasma portion of blood by removing substances from it, and in a few cases, by adding substances to it. • Works with cardiovascular system (and others!) in integrated manner

  44. Functions of the kidneys • Regulation of H2O and inorganic ion balance – most important function! • Removal of metabolic waste products from blood and excretion in urine. • Removal of foreign chemicals in the blood (e.g. drugs) and excretion in urine. • Gluconeogenesis • Endocrine functions (e.g. renin, erythropoetin, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) • In kidney disease, build-up of waste serious, but not a bad as ECF volume and composition disturbances.

  45. Functions of the kidneys • Water balance • Electrolyte balance • Plasma volume • Acid-base balance • Osmolarity balance • Excretion • Hormone secretion

  46. Acid-Base Balance • Kidneys VERY important for acid-base balance, along with respiratory system. • Important because all biochemical processes must occur within an optimal pH window. • Prevent ACIDOSIS or ALKALOSIS. • Although the lungs excrete a large amount of CO2, a potential acid formed by metabolism, the kidneys are crucial for excreting non-volatile acids. • To maintain acid-base balance, kidney must not only reabsorb virtually all filtered HCO3-, but must also secrete into the urine the daily production of non-volatile acids.

  47. KIDNEY

  48. Internal Anatomy of Kidneys • Cortex: Outer area • Renal columns • Medulla: Inner area • Renal pyramids • Calyces • Major: Converge to form pelvis • Minor: Papillae extend • Nephron:Functional unit of kidney • Juxtamedullary • Cortical

  49. Kidney Failure • at age 49 years, the expected duration of life of a patient with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis is 7 additional years compared with approximately 30 additional years for a person of the same age from the general population.