Marxism 2: Ideology & Hegemony. Althusser, Louis (1918-1990). Antonio Gramsci(1891-1937). Marx and Vulgar Marxism Western Marxists : Althusser ’ s theory of Ideology & Gramsci ’ s Hegemony American & British Marxism: Jameson and Eagleton Foucault & 文學社會學的多重互動模式.
Althusser, Louis (1918-1990)
Western Marxists : Althusser’s theory of Ideology & Gramsci’s Hegemony
American & British Marxism: Jameson and Eagleton
Dialectic Materialism, Class and Commodification
Literature & Society
Marxist Literary Criticism
Literature as DiscoureMarxism: Topics & Schools on Focus
Marx, Lenin Stalin’s politicization of literature;
Marx, Lenin Western Marxism (e.g. Lukacs, Brecht, Benjamin, Adorno)
(chap 5: 214-16;
chap 6: 84)
Poststructuralist Marxism -- Althusser;
Neo-Marxists’ use of Gramsci
(lit. as propaganda)
Realism vs. Modernism debate; their critique of culture industry; (variations of reflectionism)
Conflicting HegemoniesSuperstructure vs. Economic Basein the History ofMarxism:
-- What are the functions of literature?
-- Is good literature politically committed literature?
-- Does literature have to “reflect” its society, or help promote a certain political cause?
-- On the other hand, can literature be completely un-political?
Marxism with Structuralism.
* Ideology is not any idea; it should be a system of ideas (representation) produced by some institutions (state apparatuses 國家機器)
God is truth.
The Earth is round.
It is human nature to love.
Men are from Mars; women from Venus.
“The Taiwanese”; populism;
ISA = school in patriarchal society;
--so the myth of 女媧補天 is a mere superstition.
--so I can love anyone I’d like.
--so we should not expect men to comfort or support others.Ideologies: Examples
Ideology: the ruling ideas of the ruling class imposed on the other classes.
Base(as foundation, center)
relations of production,
means of production
relatively autonomous from;
BaseSocial Formation -- de-centered
生產關係；Lit. work: Relative autonomous
“ He did not know that it was already behind him, somewhere back in the vast obscurity beyond the city, where the dark fields of the republic rolled on under the night.
Gatsby believes in the green light, the orgiastic future that year by year recedes before us. It eluded us then, but that’s no matter--tomorrow we will run faster, stretch our arms out farther . . . so we beat on, boats against the current, born back ceaselessly into the past.”
Hegemony = Dominant Ideology, but not always controlling us;
Gramsci: considers the role of the organic intellectual and competing hegemonies.
Supporter of Russian revolution and activist in socialist transformation throughout the advanced capitalist world.
Arrested in 1926, kept in prison 1928 – 1937, where he wrote the Prison Notebook.Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937)
The Cosby Show points out that
there is 'nothing black' about
the Huxtable's lifestyle
(Mercer 1989:6 qtd in Mystry).
Counter Hegemonic Practices: e.g. Hip Hop.Strategies of containment
Sympathy shown for the minorities,
but with the whites as the real heroes.