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Language and Power: Applying Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to Second Language Education (SLE). Ali Hadidi York University Dec. 11, 2009. Outline. Objective, purpose, and questions Definitions Ideology Critical discourse analysis (CDA) Capitalist ideology Problem of ideology in SLE
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Dec. 11, 2009
Objective, purpose, and questions
Critical discourse analysis (CDA)
Problem of ideology in SLE
Alternative solutions to the problem
Tools of CDA
Values un/discovered by CDA
CDA applied to SLE
Althusser (1971), ideology : “the system of the ideas and representations which dominate the mind of a man or a social group” (p.158).
Eagleton (1991, p.29) six definitions of ideology:
the process of production of ideas
ideas symbolizing a social group
ideas promoted and legitimized despite opposition
ideas promoted for the benefit of a dominant social group
the ideas which are distorted and legitimized by the dominant group
the ideas that are false and are promoted by the dominant group, but arise from the material structure of the society
about commodities and standardization
standardized consumption as the “moral basis” for a solidarity to consume commodities that would allow fulfilling the American dream
Promoted one dream
New capitalist ideology
about customization of products that are dovetailed to cater to individual desires.
promotes a form of diversitywhich is an artefact of high-tech markets.Capitalist ideology elaborated Gee, Hull, and Lankshear (1996, pp. 42-43)
Plans to privatize hydro discussed
Who discussed it with whom?
Foreign detainees declared illegal?
Who made the declaration?
He rejected a call to delay the enquiry(adapted from Fowler, 1991, p.79)
Who made the call? Who conducts enquiry?
Quarry load-shedding problem ( a headline adapted from Fairclough, 1989, p. 50)
Who is doing the (stone) shedding? Trucks? Who is accountable?
Truth, certainty, probability
The grits will vote budget down
Government must take action to curb terrorism
You can switch the plan
He was right in endorsing the invasion
Vocabulary representation of world for a culture (Fowler, 1991, p.83
chomped on fingernails … looked on anxiously ….hoping against hope …blow it … sit comfortably … in days of yore. … dark days … correct … disastrous gaffe … … compound … agony. (National Post, Dec 11, 2008. p. A.1 )
… contexts are not ‘objective’ or ‘deterministic’ constraints of society or culture at all, but subjective participant interpretations, constructions or definitions of … aspects of the social environment (p.163).
Local model: immediate, interactional situation where communicative event takes place. It is a mental model of the communicative event
Discourse interpreted relative to the users’ mental models about the facts or events
Fairclough (1989, p.120-129)
“A recent study found that women are more likely than men to be murdered at work. 40% of the women who died on the job in 1993 were murdered. 15% of the men who died on the job during the same period were murdered.” (p.208)