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2 Week Schedule 11/4-11/15. 2 Week Schedule 11/18 - 11/29. 2 Week Schedule 12/2 – 12/13. Chapter 4. Political Culture & Ideology. Chapter 4 Text Pages : 84-106. Extra On-line Support: Study Guide w/word bank Ch.4 PowerPoint Lecture. Key Concepts. Political Culture

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chapter 4

Chapter 4


Culture & Ideology

chapter 4 text pages 84 106

Chapter 4Text Pages : 84-106

  • Extra On-line Support:
  • Study Guide w/word bank
  • Ch.4 PowerPoint Lecture
key concepts
Key Concepts
  • Political Culture
  • Political Socialization
  • Public Opinion
  • Political Ideology
political culture
Political Culture

A set of basic values and beliefs about a country or government that is shared by most citizens.

It has an influence on political opinions and behaviors.

ex. Freedom is an important value in U.S.

political culture1
Political Culture

The U.S. political culture gives citizens a sense of community and creates support for the democratic processes such as majority rule, free elections.

These help shape attitudes towards public officials and teach civic responsibility.

american democratic values
American Democratic Values
  • Majority rule / minority right
  • Equality
  • Private property
  • Individual freedoms
  • Compromise
  • Limited government
majority rule minority right
Majority rule / minority right

Although democracy is based upon majority rule, the rights of the minority must be guaranteed.


Every individual is guaranteed equality before the law and especially in the political process.

private property
Private Property

Ownership of property is protected by law and supported by the capitalist system.

individual freedoms
Individual Freedoms

Guarantees of civil liberties and the protections of infringements upon them.


Allows for the combining of different interests and opinions to form public policy to best benefit society.

limited government
Limited Government

The powers of government are restricted in a democracy by the will of the people and the law.

political socialization
Political Socialization

The process by which citizens acquire a sense of political identity.

Socialization is a complex process that begins early in childhood and continues throughout a person’s life.

political socialization1
Political Socialization

It allows citizens to become aware of politics, learn political facts and form political values and opinions.

political socialization2
Political Socialization
  • How are you influenced?
  • Family & home
  • Schools
  • Group affiliations
  • Demographic factors (race, gender & age)
  • Mass media
  • Current events (war, scandal )
political opinion
Political Opinion

A collection of shared attitudes of many different people in matters relating to politics, public issues, or the making of public policy.

This can be analyzed by intensity of beliefs and stability over time.

political opinion1
Political Opinion

Measuring of opinion is a complex process that can have unreliable results.

The most reliable measure is the public opinion poll.

Straw poll is used to ask the same question to a large number of people.

political opinion2
Political Opinion


those chosen to participate are

representative of the general population.

Today, statistical analysis through computers has made polling a major research tool.


- Finish Chapter 4 Ideologies

- Introduce Ch.5 Content


  • Begin reading into Chapter 5
  • Continue working on Study Guide
political ideology
Political Ideology

A consistent set of beliefs about politics and public policy that creates the structure for looking at government and public policy.

political ideology1
Political Ideology

Ideologies can change over time.

Differences in ideology generally occur in the arena of political, economic and social issues.

political ideologies








Political Ideologies

Favor rapid, fundamental change in existing social, economic, or political order.

May be willing to resort to extreme means, even violence or revolution to accomplish such change.


Supports active government in promoting individual welfare and supporting civil rights, and accepting of peaceful political and social change within the existing political system.


Classic and Modern-day differences

Classic: fought to minimize the role of Govt. (stressed individualism)

Modern: govt. is necessary to fix the ills of inequality and opportunity.

modern liberals
Modern Liberals

Advocates of equal access to health care, believe in affirmative action programs, worker health and safety precautions, tax rates that rise with income, and the rights of unions to organize and strike.

They generally believe that government programs will make things better.

modern liberals1
Modern Liberals
  • Prefer that the government take care of the weak.
  • Some favor the reduction of great inequalities of wealth that make equality of opportunity impossible.


criticism of liberals
Criticism of Liberals
  • Too much power in the hands of the govt. can lead to corruption.
  • Too much regulation and taxing can undermine the “self-help” ethic that America was founded on.
  • Govt. involvement could destroy individual initiate and the entrepreneurial spirit.

Promotes a limited government role in helping individuals economically, supports traditional values and lifestyles, favors a more active role for government in promoting national security, and approaches change cautiously.

  • Want to keep government generally small (except in the area of national defense.)
  • Government needs to ensure order through firm laws and strict moral codes.
  • Typically opposed to:
    • judicial rulings that allow abortions.
    • affirmative action programs
traditional conservatives
“Traditional” Conservatives
  • Pro-business
  • Oppose higher taxes and resist all but the most necessary antitrust, trade, and environmental regulations on corporations.
social conservatives
“Social” Conservatives

Concerned with morality and lifestyle

  • Favor strong govt. action to protect children from pornography and drugs.
  • Want stringent limits on abortions.
new right conservatives
“New Right” Conservatives

Emerged in the 1980’s

  • Favors the return of prayer in school
  • Opposes policies of job quotas,busing and tolerance of homosexuality.
criticism of conservatives
Criticism of Conservatives

Conservatives tend to be selective and inconsistent on what they want govt. to do.

Ex. Want govt. to regulate areas like pornography and abortions, but oppose regulations of other people’s lives in the economic fields.


Political Ideology that falls between liberal and conservative and which may include some of both; usually thought of as tolerant of others’ political opinions and not likely to hold extreme views on issues.


Economic and governmental system based on public ownership of the means of production and exchange.

Karl Marx explained socialism as the transitional stage between capitalism and communism.



  • The nationalization of certain industries.
  • a public jobs program so that all who want work would be put to work.
  • A much steeper tax burden on the wealthy.
  • Drastically cut defense spending.

Socialists generally argue that capitalism concentrates power and wealth within a small segment of society that controls the means of production and derives its wealth through economic exploitation.

This creates unequal social relations which fail to provide opportunities for every individual to maximize their potential, and does not utilize available technology and resources to their maximum potential in the interests of the public.


Western European democratic countries have been more influenced by socialist ideas than we have in the U.S.


Advocates a return to a previous state of affairs, often a social order of government that existed earlier in History.

May be willing to go to extremes to achieve their goals.


The term is primarily used as a term meant to assert the idea that the opposition is based in merely reflexive politics rather than responsive and informed views.

Groups seldom refer to themselves as reactionary.


Focus on:

  • grassroots democracy
  • Social justice
  • Equal opportunity
  • Nonviolence
  • Respect for diversity
  • Feminism
  • Similar to liberalism with a focus on ecology and the environment.
  • Political ideology that cherishes individual liberty and insists sharply on limited govt.
  • Preach opposition to almost all government programs.
  • Want an end to the FBI and CIA
  • Oppose all govt. regulation
  • Repeal all laws that limit individual choices
    • Seat belts, helmet laws, abortion,porn, drugs
libertarians lp org
Libertarians LP.org
  • The Libertarians are neither left nor right: they believe in total individual liberty

Social Issues:

  • pro-drug legalization
  • pro-choice
  • pro-gay marriage
  • pro-home schooling
  • pro-gun rights, etc.
  • Economic Issues:
  • anti-welfare
  • anti-government regulation of business
  • anti-minimum wage
  • anti-income tax, pro-free trade.

The LP espouses a classical laissez faire ideology which, they argue, means "more freedom, less government and lower taxes."

review items
Review Items
  • Political culture is a set of basic values/beliefs about a country shared by most citizens.
  • America is a heterogeneous (diverse) society with many political cultures.
  • Political Socialization is the process in which citizens acquire their political identity.
  • Modern polling began in the 1930’s with George Gallup.






Govt. Power

Individual Liberty



























Political Parties



Indiv. Liberty

Govt. Power

http secure isidewith com political quiz

To what extent do you have liberal views?

Answer the yes/no

Choose another stance lets you see “middle of the road answes” between yes and no.

Click on the

essay topic ch 4

Essay Topic Ch. 4

Fundamental differences between

the Liberal and Conservative

political ideologies.

Be able to identify and provide specific examples

chapter 5

Chapter 5

The American Political Landscape

chapter 51

Chapter 5

  • Supplemental Aides:
  • Northwest Website
  • Study Guide w/word bank

Text Pages : 108-131

essay topic ch 5

Essay Topic Ch. 5

How a person’s demographics

affects their level of involvement

in government.

Be able to identify and provide specific examples

  • Differences in race, ethnicity, gender, family structure, religion, wealth & income, occupation and social classes can affect opinions and voting options.
  • The relationship between age - education and political participation.
chapter outline
Chapter Outline
  • A Land of Diversity
  • Where we live
  • Who we are
  • Unity in a Land of Diversity
a land of diversity
A Land of Diversity
  • The U.S. has been more open to accepting people from all over the world than many other countries have been.
  • The “American Dream” has offered the promise of religious, political and economic freedom.
expatify com
  • Lists countries and the immigration requirements for each.
geography national identity
Geography & National Identity
  • The Atlantic Ocean provided a barrier to foreign meddling during the formative years of the U.S.
  • The Western frontier provided room to grow and avoid political and social tensions.
geography national identity1
Geography & National Identity
  • A 2nd Ocean on the Pacific provided great isolationism from Europe and many of the alliances and entanglements. (which helped shape our initial foreign policy)
geography national identity2
Geography & National Identity
  • Overall size of the U.S. landmass allowed for tensions to be diffused as people were able to spread out.
  • Abundance of natural resources found in the U.S. provided enhanced economic growth, provided jobs and stabilized the govt.
sectional differences
Sectional Differences
  • Different groups of people do not separate themselves into distinct area within the U.S.
  • Race and religious differences occur throughout the entire country.
  • Only during the country’s early period did we have the South’s agriculture differ much from that of the North’s commerce and manufacturing.
sectional differences1
Sectional Differences
  • Civil rights revolution helped eliminate roadblocks that prevented African Americans from voting, opened up new educational opportunities and helped integrate the South into the national economy.
sectional differences2
Sectional Differences
  • “Solid South”
  • Term referring to region that voted primarily Democratic at all levels.
  • Came about after the Civil War
Red = Republican

Blue = Democrat


Red = Republican

Blue = Democrat


Red = Republican

Red = Republican

Blue = Democrat

Blue = Democrat



Red = Republican

Blue = Democrat


Can you notice the change?

Red = Republican

Red = Republican

Blue = Democrat

Blue = Democrat


Did you notice the change?


Red = Republican

Red = Republican

Blue = Democrat

Blue = Democrat



sectional differences3
Sectional Differences
  • Since 1968, the South has become more Republican in nature, first at the National level and then at state and local levels.
    • Clinton and Gore won only 4 of 11 “Southern States in ’92 and ’96 elections.
sectional differences4
Sectional Differences
  • Why did the South Change ?
    • Debate within the Democratic party regarding Vietnam policy in the late 60’s and early 70’s
    • Republican candidates have more recently emphasized family values, opposition to taxes, and law and order issues.
sectional differences5
Sectional Differences
  • New Growth:
    • South is experiencing large growth in the 65 and older demographic
    • The West is seeing an increase in the number of younger persons.
sectional differences6
Sectional Differences
  • New Growth:
    • Sunbelt states are experiencing greater economic growth as industries have headed south and Southwest where land and labor is cheaper and more abundant.
where we live
Where we live
  • 4 out of 5 Americans live in central cities and their suburbs
  • Early 20th Century movement was from rural to central cities…..since 1950, the movement has been from the central cities to the suburbs.
  • Regionally, the West and Northeast are the most urban areas, whereas the south and Midwest are the most rural.


where we live1
Where we live
  • Why do people move to the suburbs ?
    • Better housing
    • New transportation systems
    • Cleaner air
    • Safer streets
where we live2
Where we live
  • “White flight”
    • Movement of whites away from the central cities.
    • Avoid being bused for racial balance
where we live3
Where we live
  • White, middle-class migration to the suburbs has made the American cities increasingly poor.
  • More than ½ of all African Americans now live in central cities (as opposed to 1/5th of all whites.
  • The proportions are almost reversed for the suburbs.
who we are
Who we are
  • Race:
    • A grouping of human beings with distinctive physical characteristics determined by genetic inheritance.
  • Ethnicity:
    • A social division based on national origin, religion, and language, often within the same race, and includes a sense of attachment to that group.
who we are1
Who we are
  • Statistics: (single race)
    • White 61.1 %
    • Hispanic 16.9 %
    • African American 13.1 %
    • Asian American 5.1 %
    • Native American 1.2 %

* See chart on page 117 for projections through year 2050

for tonight
For Tonight:

Take notes on the rest of Ch.5

who we are2
Who we are
  • Pages 117–119 shows breakdown information:
    • African Americans
    • Hispanics
    • Asian Americans
african americans
African Americans
  • Until 1900, more than 90% of African Americans lived in the south.

(by 2011, the percentage was 57 )

  • Many left the south hoping to improve their lives by settling in the cities of the Northeast, Midwest and West.
african americans1
African Americans
  • Poverty rates are higher among African Americans than whites….about 25% are considered below the poverty level.
  • The African American population is much younger than the white population.

Median age : 30.2 vs. 37.7

african americans2
African Americans
  • Political Power developed after WWII when many African Americans saw the Democratic Party as the party of civil rights.
  • In 1964, LBJ received nearly all of the African American vote.
  • In 1984 and 2000, their Democratic vote averaged 86%. (2012=93%)
african americans3
African Americans
  • Political Power Recently:
    • Making up 37% in Mississippi, 33% in Louisiana and 30% in South Carolina. (Wash. D.C. is 51%)
    • Many southern politicians must ensure that they work towards earning the votes of the highly concentrated groups.
hispanics latinos
Hispanics (Latinos)
  • Political Power Recently:
    • Cuban Americans tend to be Republicans
    • Mexican and Puerto Ricans tend to favor Democratic candidates.
  • Geography can play a part in this
    • Cubans (FL.) Puerto Ricans (NYC)
    • Mexicans ( CA )
hispanics latinos1
Hispanics (Latinos)
  • Economics can play a part in this
    • Cubans tend to be upper-middle class levels
    • Puerto Ricans and Mexicans are generally lower in level.
  • Widespread support for a liberal domestic agenda, including increased spending on health care, crime and drug control, education and the environment.
asian americans
Asian Americans
  • Classified together for census purposes
  • Significantly different in culture, language, and political experience in the U.S.
  • Immigration grew during the 70’s and 80’s
asian americans1
Asian Americans
  • Have been successful economically and educationally.
  • Nearly 11 million living in predominantly west coast areas (Hawaii, CA, Washington)
    • 2010 Census has number at 18M

the expressive theory of voting.

  • Largest number of immigrants:
    • 1900-1924 saw 17.3 million relocate to U.S.
  • 1991-1998 saw more than 7.6 million immigrants arrive from primarily the Caribbean and Mexico and from Asian countries.
  • Foreign-born proportion of the U.S. population has increased from 14M in 1980 to 28M in 2000. (40M 2011….13%)
  • Women gained the right to vote first in Wyoming in 1869, Utah in 1870 and then in Co. and Id.
  • It wasn’t until 1920 with the passage of the 19th Amendment that women were given the national right to vote.
  • During the past 20 years, women have voted more than men.
  • Women have chosen to work within the existing political parties and do not overwhelmingly support female candidates, especially if they must cross party lines to do so.
  • Since 1917, less than 6% of representatives in the U.S. House have been women.
  • Following the 2000 election there were 3 female governors,13 women serving in the Senate, and about 15% of the House is made up of women.
  • 40% of State Legislatures are made up of women.

Gender Gap in voting behavior?

  • Women tend to vote more Democrat than men.
  • Women tend to oppose violence in any form (death penalty,new weapons systems, possession of handguns)
  • Women identify more with work and family issues (day care, maternity leave, equal workplace)
  • Other issues: reproductive rights, restrictions on pornography, gun control and sexual harassment.

Gender Gap in economics:

  • More than 2X the number of women make less than $15,000 a year than men do.
  • Women college graduates ages 25-34 earn an average of 80 cents for each dollar a man makes of the same age and education level.
  • As age increases, the earnings gap widens.
sexual orientation
Sexual Orientation
  • Modern movement for expanded rights for gay and lesbians dates back to 1969.
  • Reports from the gay and lesbian community put their numbers as 10% of the U.S. population.
  • Politically important in many cities such as NYC and SF, which have openly professed members of Congress.
sexual orientation1
Sexual Orientation
  • In 2000, Vermont became the first state to enact legislation granting gay and lesbian couples, “Civil Union” status.

(which confers many of the benefits of marriage)

  • In other U.S. cities, some employers have given health and benefits to domestic partners.
sexual orientation2
As of Jan. 2013, nine states allow same-sex marriage:

Vermont - Maine

New Hampshire - Maryland

Connecticut - New York

Massachusetts - Washington


Also recognizing is: Washington D.C.

Sexual Orientation
sexual orientation3
As of Oct. 2013, 14 states allow same-sex marriage:

Vermont - Maine - NJ

New Hampshire - Maryland - DE

Connecticut - New York - MN

Massachusetts - Washington - RI

Iowa - CAL

Also recognizing is: Washington D.C.

Sexual Orientation
sexual orientation4
Sexual Orientation
  • 11 states recognize some alternative form of same-sex union or domestic partnership.
  • 12 states ban any recognition of any form of same-sex unions including civil union
  • 28 states have adopted amendments to their state constitution prohibiting same-sex marriage
sexual orientation5
Sexual Orientation
  • Anti- discrimination statutes protect people from discrimination in housing and employment have been passed in many cities.
  • The push for laws against Hate crimes based on sexual orientation have led to Federal legislation (2009)
sexual orientation6
Sexual Orientation

Additional policies to reference:

  • Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA)
  • Don’t Ask-Don’t Tell policy
family structure
Family Structure
  • “Traditional” family has changed over the past 50 years.
  • Americans are more likely to approve of premarital sex.
  • Over half of Americans will cohabit.

(live with someone of the opposite sex to whom they are not married)

family structure1
Family Structure
  • Men marry at an average age of 26
  • Women marry at an average age of 24
  • The average marriage lasts 7.2 years
    • Before WW2, divorce rate was around 9%
    • Today, it is estimated around 50%
family structure2
Family Structure
  • Contraception is widely used and accepted
  • 1/3 of all births are illegitimate
  • Early 1960’s a woman averaged 3.5 children
  • Today, it is around 2.0
    • (less than 2.1 needed to replace the population due to deaths)
family structure3
Family Structure
  • In 1972, 1/3rd of Americans thought that a woman belonged in the home and should not work outside the house.
  • Today, only 1/6th feel this way.
  • Federalist # 51 Madison writes:
    • “In a free government the security for civil rights must be the same as the that for religious rights”

Absence of an official American Church does not

mean that religion is unimportant in politics.

  • There were established state churches until 1830.
  • Politicians refer to God in their speeches.

Americans take religion seriously more so than

people of other industrial democracies.

  • Nearly ¾ of Americans attend houses of worship at least several times a year.
  • 59% attend at least once a month
  • 42% attend every week

A defining characteristic of religion in the U.S. is

the variety of denominations.

  • 56% describe themselves as Protestant

Largest denomination: Baptist

  • Catholics have the largest single membership in the U.S. (nearly ¼ of the population)
  • Jews number around 2% of the population
  • Muslims number around 500,000

Religion can play a major role in the states.

  • Catholics make up over 50% of RI, CT, MA.
  • Baptists make up over 50% of MS,AL, GA
  • Mormons make up over 70% of Utah
  • The South is most Protestant = 61%
  • New York has 7% Jews (NYC=14%)

Religion can play a major role in Elections

  • Catholics have tended to vote Democrat
  • Protestant have tended to vote Republican
  • Jewish voter’s identification with the Democratic party was reinforced with the nomination of Jewish Senator Joe Lieberman for the VP election of 2000.

Religion can play a major role in voter turnout

  • Jews reported a 93% turnout in 2000 election.
  • Catholics had 62% turnout.
  • Protestant had 59% turnout.
  • No religious affiliation had 47% turnout
wealth income
Wealth & Income
  • Federalist # 10 Madison writes:
    • “Those who hold, and those who are without property, have ever formed distinct interests in society.”
wealth income1
Wealth & Income
  • Aside from race, income may be the single most important factor in explaining views on issues, partisanship, and ideology.

Most rich people are Republicans, and most poor

people are Democrats.

wealth income2
Wealth & Income
  • The poor are a minority who lack political power.
  • The poor vote less than wealthier groups and are less confident and organized in dealing with politics and government.
  • Over the past 2 decades, inequality between rich and poor has been increasing. ( a trend much different than in the 1960’s when the gap narrowed.)
wealth income3
Wealth & Income
  • Income is related to participation in politics.
    • People who need the most help from government are the least likely to participate.
    • They are also the most likely to facot social welfare programs.