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Gold Country Computer Learning Center GCCLC Digital Camera Class 1 Revised, July 2009 Lesson slides Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 1 Introduction to Digital Cameras The Community Center layout Needed by students for this course: Your camera with batteries and memory card

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Digital Camera Class 1

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lesson slides
Lesson slides
  • Lesson 1
  • Lesson 2
  • Lesson 3
  • Lesson 4
lesson 1 introduction to digital cameras
Lesson 1Introduction to Digital Cameras
  • The Community Center layout
  • Needed by students for this course:
    • Your camera with batteries and memory card
    • Batteries charged
    • Manual for the camera
    • Student guide for this course
    • USB Cable connection camera to PC (opt)
lesson one
Lesson One
  • Finding information about your camera
  • What type of batteries are used in your camera
  • What type and size of memory in your camera
  • Basic camera modes
  • Optical and digital zoom in your camera
  • Transferring Images to PC
camera basics
Camera Basics
  • Camera Basics
    • Data chips – not film
      • Various types
      • Reusable
    • Learn basic functions
      • More enjoyable use
      • Practice between lessons
my camera exercise 1 1
My CameraExercise 1-1
  • Begin recording camera information
  • Enter as you complete various exercises
camera standard features batteries



Nickel Cadmium

NiMH (Nickel Metal Hydride)

Li-ion (Lithium Ion)

External battery packs

Exercise 1-2

Remove the battery(ies) from your camera.

Are they rechargeable or standard?

Record the information in the chart found in Exercise 1-1.

Replace the battery(ies).

Camera Standard FeaturesBatteries
camera standard features camera memory 1
Exercise 1-3

Turn off camera

Open the memory door

Remove the memory

Record the type of memory

Types of memory

Compact flash

SD Memory

xD Picture Cards

Memory Stick

Smart media


Camera Standard FeaturesCamera Memory 1
camera standard features camera memory 2
Camera Standard FeaturesCamera Memory 2
  • How many memory cards and what size?
  • Memory card costs (as of 7/2009)
    • SanDisk 2GB Ultra II CompactFlash Card $7
    • SanDisk 2GB SD Memory Card $3
    • SanDisk 4GB SDHC Memory Card $9
    • SanDisk 1GB xD Memory Card $16
    • SanDisk 2GB xD Memory Card $25
    • SanDisk 4GB Memory Stick Pro Duo $18
    • SanDisk 8GB Memory Stick Pro Duo $32
    • SanDisk 4GB microSD Memory Card $13
camera standard features camera memory 3
Number of Photos per camera memory and pixel capacity of the camera-for highest resolution & least compressionCamera Standard FeaturesCamera Memory 3

Source: Olympus MP = mega pixel

camera modes
Camera Modes
  • What is a “mode”?
    • Picture taking modes = settings
    • Pre-programmed camera settings
      • Simplifies picture taking
      • Includes some of these settings:
        • Shutter speed
          • How long the shutter stays open
        • Shutter opening
          • How much light is let in through the lens
        • How many pixels of the shot will be saved to memory
camera modes exercise 1 4
Camera ModesExercise 1-4
  • Look closely at your camera – get out your manual
  • Some modes
    • Auto
    • Landscape
    • Action
    • Close-up (macro)
    • Video
    • Night
    • Portrait
cameras lenses
Cameras Lenses
  • Zoom – almost all digital cameras - standard
  • Zoom types
    • Optical – what is the magnification of yours?
      • lens moves in and out
      • true telephoto
    • Digital – Causes loss of quality! Use cautiously
      • lens doesn’t move
      • camera magnifies existing optical image
  • SLR – single lens reflex
    • Removable lenses
taking a few test photos exercise 1 5 pg11
Taking a Few Test PhotosExercise 1-5 (pg11)
  • Two-step shooting
    • Press half-way down (why?)
    • Then press the rest of the way
  • Turn on your camera
  • Take a “head” picture of someone in the classroom
  • Take a picture of something across the classroom
  • Turn your camera off
transfer the photos exercise 1 6 page 12
Transfer the PhotosExercise 1-6 (page 12)
  • Turn off your camera
  • Insert data chip into the PC(or use USB cable & followcamera instructions)
  • Select first option in window
  • Select photos to download
  • Enter your name forthe “group”
transfer the photos exercise 1 6 page 15 cont
Transfer the PhotosExercise 1-6 (page 15-cont.)
  • After photos are copied
    • Click Next
    • Click Finish
  • If enough time – instructor will show how to view the photos
  • Remove your data chip(or properly disconnectUSB cable)
  • Turn off the PC
  • Note: See the alternative procedure in the student manual (page 12) if the wizard does not appear
homework for lesson 1 get ready for lesson 2
Homework for Lesson 1Get ready for Lesson 2
  • During the week
    • Review your camera manual so that you are familiar with each of the functions/modes discussed in class
    • Practice taking some pictures
    • Practice copying photos to your PC
lesson 2 using the camera
Lesson 2Using the Camera
  • Student needs for this lesson
    • Your camera with charged batteries and data chip
    • Manual for the camera
    • Student guide for this course
  • This lesson
    • Finding more information about your camera
    • Image quality settings
    • Optical (and digital) zoom in your camera
    • What are the zoom ratings of your camera?
    • Flash modes of your camera
    • Picture taking exercises
review of basic camera functions and controls
Review of Basic Camera Functions and Controls
  • On/Off – Button or sliding lens cover
  • Batteries
  • Memory
  • Modes – Auto, (Semi-Manual, and Manual), landscape, action, close-up, video, night, portrait
  • Lenses – Optical (and Digital) zoom
image quality settings 1 2
Image Quality Settings (1/2)
  • Image quality settings affect the quality of the picture and the number of pictures your data chip will hold
  • Higher the quality – the fewer number of pictures
  • Example(Cannon128 MB card)
optical and digital zoom
Optical and Digital Zoom
  • Background about Zoom
    • Advantages
      • Changes image from wide-angle to close-up (telephoto)
      • Brings a far image closer
  • Zoom – almost all digital cameras - standard
  • Zoom types
    • Optical – what is the magnification of your camera lens?
      • Lens moves in and out (W and T)
      • True telephoto
      • Compare digital camera lenses by the optical zoom rating
    • Digital – what is the digital zoom rating of your camera lens?
      • Lens doesn’t move
      • Camera magnifies the existing optical image
      • Crops the existing optical image – and magnifies
      • Best to disable digital zoom in your camera unless your are sure of results
zoom lens effects
Zoom Lens Effects
  • Wide Angle
    • “Objects in mirror are closer than they appear”
    • Distorts near objects larger than reality
    • Deep perspective
  • Zoom
    • Distorts distant objects larger than reality
    • Shallow perspective
zoom lens effects24
Portraits are usually best taken zoomed out to prevent close features from appearing fatter

But experiment for effect!

Zoom Lens Effects

Wide Angle


more zoom
More Zoom

Wide Angle – 0.5x

Normal – 1x

Zoom – 3x

Zoom – 8x

lens resolution in digital cameras
Lens Resolution in Digital Cameras
  • Resolution = pixels captured when taking the picture
  • Associated with file size
  • Associated with picture quality
  • 2 MP vs. 3 MP in amount of data captured
  • A 3 MP camera with a 10x optical zoom – records maximum of 3 MP of data
resolution picture quality
Resolution = Picture Quality
  • Quality = size of the printed picture
  • The larger is the file size, the larger can be the printed picture
  • The number of pixels matters
  • High quality requires more pixels


resolution examples
Resolution Examples

Low Resolution

High Resolution

flash exercise 2 1 p 23
FlashExercise 2-1 (p 23)
  • What flash features does your camera have?
    • Flash ModesCheck below your camera features
      • Auto [ ]
      • Flash On, Fill Flash, or [ ]Forced Flash
      • Flash OFF [ ]
      • Red-eye reduction [ ]
picture taking 10 minutes exercise 2 2 p 24
Picture Taking – 10 minutesExercise 2-2(p 24)
  • (Zoom – 2 pictures – flash off) Find a distant object in the classroom up against the wall - like the door and take pictures with no zoom and then maximum optical zoom of your camera.
  • (Zoom – 1 pictures – flash off) This time take a picture of someone or an object that is in the foreground using optical zoom– like maybe 5 feet in front of a wall, door or bookcase.
  • (Flash – 2 pictures – “Off and Auto flash”) Find an object that is slightly shaded or in a shadow like in the front of the classroom with the front lights off, or open one of the closets.
    • Take a picture with flash off.
    • Then turn flash on Automatic and take the same picture.
  • (Flash – 2 pictures) Find a person who is slightly in the shade or shadow
    • Take a head picture with Auto flash
    • Take one picture with “red eye” flash turned on.
  • (Flash – 2 pictures) With flash OFF, take a head picture of someone who is well illuminated then take the same picture with a flash (fill flash) turned on. This will help to show the “wash out” effects that a flash will have.
reviewing your photos using your camera exercise 2 3 p 25
Reviewing Your Photos using your cameraExercise 2-3(p 25)
  • Review photos using the playback feature
  • Delete photos that do not meet your expectations
    • To do this, use your instruction manual for the camera
    • Generally you use the Viewing, or Browsing, feature of the camera to see the photo on the LCD display
    • Select the erase picture button and confirm that you want it erased. Erase one picture at a time
  • View the next picture and perform the same steps. If you do not want to erase the picture, then simply select the next photo on the camera.
transfer photos to the pc exercises 2 4 and 2 5
Transfer Photos to the PCExercises 2-4 and 2-5
  • Start the PC
  • Turn off the camera
  • Remove the data chip – insert in PC
  • Select “Copy pictures to a folder” (p 26)
  • Select photos to download
  • Enter the directory name group = your name
  • Next then Finish
removing images from the data chip p 30
Removing Images from the Data Chip (p 30)
  • Data chip looks like a hard drive
  • File and Folder Tasks
    • Move – takes from chip to PC
    • Copy – adds a copy to PC
    • Delete – deletes from chip
end of lesson 2
End of Lesson 2
  • Remove data chip from PC
  • Place data chip back in camera
  • Turn off the PC
  • Homework for Lesson 3
    • Review optical and digital zoom
    • What is your camera’s flash range in feet?
    • Practice taking pictures then removing photos from the data chip
      • When chip is in the camera
      • When chip is in the PC
lesson 3 composition and e mailing
Lesson 3Composition and E-mailing
  • Student needs for this lesson
    • Your camera with charged batteries and data chip
    • Manual for the camera
    • Student guide for this course
  • This Lesson:
    • Composing your pictures
    • Composition tips
    • E-mailing your pictures
review from lesson 2
Review from Lesson 2
  • What is the difference between optical and digital zoom?
  • Did you have enough time to work on flash? Any questions?
    • Difference between Auto, Fill or manual flash, and flash off?
  • Reviewing, deleting images using the camera?
  • Copying images to your PC?
composing your pictures as you take them
Composing Your Pictures(as you take them)
  • Strong point of interest
    • A focal point that is off-center (Rule of Thirds)
    • Add people for scale and interest
    • Bad weather photos can be very interesting
    • Overcast – few shadows
    • Fill-flash useful
composition tips
Composition Tips
  • Tip 1: Get down to their level
composition tips40
Composition Tips
  • Tip 2: Plain background
composition tips41
Composition Tips
  • Tip 3: Using flash outdoors
  • Fill flash
  • Manual flash
composition tips42
Composition Tips
  • Tip 4: Move in close to subject
  • Three feet (+) is good
  • Fill picture area with subject
composition tips43
Composition Tips
  • Tip 5: Take some vertical pictures
  • Drama
composition tips44
Composition Tips
  • Tip 6: Move it from the middle
composition tips45
Composition Tips
  • Tip 7: Focus control – lock the focus (two-step)
  • Half-way down to focus and lock in the lens setting
  • Wait for the OK signal
  • Focus on subject
composition tips46
Composition Tips
  • Tip 8: Lock the focus
  • “Center weighted” focus
  • Focus on the subject – then move to compose
  • Use two-step process
composition tips47
Composition Tips
  • Tip 9: Delays in auto-focus
    • Happens when camera is confused
    • Use two-step process
    • Point at main area of interest and press half-way to focus
    • Compose picture and press the rest of the way
composition tips48
Composition Tips
  • Tip 10: Know flash range of your camera
    • Main mistake – subject out of flash range
    • Use “night flash” – background with subject up front
    • What is your camera’s flash range? _______ ft.
composition tips49
Composition Tips
  • Tip 11: Watch the light
    • Use flash when needed
    • Move subject or yourself
composition tips50
Composition Tips
  • Tip 12: Be a picture director
    • Take control of the picture
    • Pick the location
    • Arrange your subjects when needed
picture taking exercise 3 1 20 minutes p 41
Picture taking Exercise 3-120 minutes(p 41)

“Buddy up” with person next to you

  • Down to “their” level: (2 pictures):
    • Look down at object (person) ~ 3ft from ground, take picture
    • Get down to their level, take picture from 10 feet away w/zoom
  • Plain background (2 pictures):
    • Confusing background, take a picture
    • Then take a picture with a plain background
  • Fill flash(2 pictures):
    • Person in shadow, bright background
    • Take another picture with fill flash
  • Move in Close to subject (2 pictures):
    • 15 - 20 feet from subject, take picture
    • Move closer or zoom so subject fills frame, take picture
picture taking exercise cont
Picture Taking Exercise (cont)
  • Vertical picture (2 pictures):
    • Find a tall object and take a picture in vertical (portrait) mode
    • Take a picture of the same object in regular horizontal (landscape) mode
  • Offset from the middle (2 pictures):
    • Find an object which you believe is interesting
    • Take picture with object in middle of frame
    • Take a picture of the object moving it off center to the left or right (1/3 way)
  • Focus control, nearby object (2 pictures):
    • Subject off center, center is far away, take picture in 2 step mode
    • Same picture, first focus on subject (half way down), then move to frame with subject off center, take picture
  • Be a director (1 picture):
    • Organize a couple of people and direct them how to pose for an interesting picture
    • Take the picture
transfer photos and review them exercise 3 2
Transfer Photos and Review ThemExercise 3-2
  • Place the data chip in the PC and copy the photos into your folder under My Pictures
  • Open the folder and double-click on one of the pictures
  • This will start the Windows Picture and Fax Viewer
  • Notice at the bottom of the screen are arrows on the left middle – this allows you to scroll through the pictures
  • Notice at the bottom middle the two magnifying glasses. To the left of those is an icon looking like a picture screen. This is the slide show icon.
    • Click on the slide show icon. Your pictures will scroll automatically from one to the next
    • You can escape the slide show by clicking the Esc key on your keyboard or wait until the show has ended
  • Safely remove the data chip and install in your camera
e mailing your photos outlook express exercise 3 3 p 42
E-mailing your photos (Outlook Express) Exercise 3-3 (p 42)
  • My Pictures\<your folder>
  • Select image file to e-mail
  • Choose “E-mail this file”
  • Choose “Make all my pictures smaller”
  • Click OK
  • Outlook Express will open
  • Choose your e-mail address (look on r-side of PC tower for the name)
  • Give the e-mail a Subject
  • Send the message
  • Wait a minute or two
  • Click on “Send and Receive”
  • Open the message you just sent
  • Re-do this exercise a few times – try “Keep the original size”
end of lesson 3
End of Lesson 3
  • Remove your data chip from PC – use “Safe to remove” option
  • Replace data chip into your camera
  • Turn off the PC
  • Homework for next week:
    • Find the self timer – read up on how to use it
    • Do you have a sports or action setting for your camera?
      • Find it – read about it
      • Is it a dial setting or a menu setting?
lesson 4 more digital camera features
Lesson 4More Digital Camera Features
  • Student needs for this lesson
    • Your camera (batteries charged)
    • Manual for the camera
    • Student guide for this course
  • This Lesson:
    • Self Timer
    • Macro mode
    • Sports scenes
    • Exposure Control
    • Mini-movie clip
handling problem situations
Handling Problem Situations
  • Taking a group photo - with yourself in it
  • Hard to focus due to lighting or moving objects
  • Dark situations
  • Fast moving objects (sports)
  • Artificial lighting
  • Over/Under Exposure
the self timer
The Self Timer
  • Get yourself in the picture
    • Use a tripod or flat surface for the camera
    • Aim, push button, quickly go to your spot
self timer exercise 4 1
Self Timer Exercise 4-1
  • Read how to use your self timer
  • Place the camera on top of the computer
  • Set the self timer and “shoot” yourself
  • After the shot – review your picture and re-take if necessary
  • Work with your neighbor and take a shot of both of you
delayed shutter
Delayed Shutter
  • 2 second delay
  • Used to reduce camera shake on longer exposures
  • Often associated with Self-Timer
  • Can be used with or without a tripod (M&Ms)
  • If your self-timer goes off too soon, it may be on the delayed shutter setting!
macro close up
Macro – Close-up
  • Uses of macro mode
    • Subject is less than 20 inches
    • Give other examples of usage
    • How close can the camera lens get and be in focus?
  • What is the symbol on your camera for close-up or macro?
  • Causes the background to be out of focus (an “open” or wide lens aperture)
  • Some photographers keep a tape measure handy to measure distance (or a string, etc)
more macro examples
More Macro Examples

With Macro

Without Macro

macro exercise 4 2
Macro Exercise 4-2
  • Using a macro setting on your camera, take a close up of an object at
    • 3 feet
    • 12 inches
    • 8 inches or less. This could be a key on your keyboard or the mouse, or an eraser on a pencil held by someone
  • These objects could be objects on your table, or on the tables in the middle of the room.
macro focusing problems
Macro Focusing Problems
  • Did you use the two-step procedure?
  • Did you move the camera during exposure?
  • Was the camera in macro mode and the object the correct distance?
  • Was the subject moving too fast for the shutter speed?
  • Does the subject have contrasting tones-colors for the automatic focus to register?
sports scenes
Sports Scenes
  • What is the setting on your camera for sports (fast moving scenes)?
  • “Shutter Priority” (S), “Action”, or “Sports” mode
    • Set shutter to 1/100 of a second or as fast as possible
sports scenes panning
Sports Scenes - Panning
  • Panning – moving the camera in sync with the speed of the subject and taking the shot
    • Useful when subject is very fast
    • Useful in low light when the shutter has to be wide and shutter speed slower to get a lighted shot
    • Practice taking a shot of a moving car close to the subject, or an animal playing
sports scene example
Sports Scene - Example




sports exercise 4 3 panning
Sports – Exercise 4-3Panning
  • Turn on your camera
  • Turn off the flash
  • The camera mode can be sports, however since the idea here is to use panning, keeping the camera in auto mode will work better for testing your ability to use this technique
  • Have someone (like the instructor or coach) hold up a piece of colored paper and walk quickly across the room
  • Students - pan as you take a picture of the person moving across the room or swinging something
  • Review your shots
exposure settings
Exposure Settings
  • “Exposure” means the amount of light entering the camera onto the image surface
  • Controlled by Shutter Speed and Aperture
    • Shutter Speed is the time the shutter is open, expressed in fractions of a second.
      • “Slow” shutter speed blurs action, may require a tripod
      • “Fast” shutter speed stops action. Limited by aperture size.
    • Aperture is the size of the opening of the iris in the lens.
      • Large opening = narrow depth of focus
      • Small opening = wide depth of focus
aperture opening

f/5 – wide aperture stop and fast shutter speed

f/32 narrow aperture stop and slow shutter speed

Aperture = opening
  • Depth of field
  • Combine the opening of the lens and the speed the shutter opens/closes
  • F stop – low number = wide, high number = narrow
  • Fast lens = one that opens wide (1.8 or lower number)
changing lighting conditions presets typical settings
Changing Lighting ConditionsPresets – Typical Settings
  • Automatic:
    • The white balance is adjusted automatically so that colors look natural regardless of the light source
  • Sunlight:
    • For natural colors under a clear sky
  • Overcast:
    • For natural colors under a cloudy sky
  • Tungsten:
    • For natural colors under incandescent lighting
  • Fluorescent:
    • For natural colors under fluorescent lighting
dark scenes
Dark Scenes
  • Night, dusk, dimly lit interior where flash is not usually effective.
  • Long exposures, so stabilize the camera
  • Select “Flash Off”
  • Select Night-Time mode on camera.

Note: some cameras have a “Night Flash” mode that applies flash to what is close and extends exposure for what is far

mini movie clip video mode exercise 4 4
Mini-Movie Clip-Video ModeExercise 4-4
  • Video recording mode
  • From a few seconds to many minutes
  • Uses lots of memory storage
  • Some cameras record the noise
  • Usually low resolution
    • Ok for a small TV – some are better
  • Connect to a TV to play, or copy to a CD and display on the TV or computer
review your pictures exercise 4 5
Review your Pictures Exercise 4-5
  • Turn on the PC and log in
  • Review the photos you took using the LCD viewer on the camera
  • Browse through the photos for pictures you do not want to save and erase them from the camera using the delete button
  • For all other photos, take notes for each on what you may want to edit. Consult with your neighbors and the coaches.
class evaluation
Class Evaluation
  • Please fill-in the class evaluation form you received in our first lesson.
  • Let the instructor know if you didn’t receive one.
  • This class name is DC1
  • Give honest feedback so we can continue to meet the needs of YOU, our students.

Thank you

use new knowledge at home exercise 4 4
Use New Knowledge at HomeExercise 4-4
  • Take 6 or 7 pictures at your home
  • Try to frame the photo into a nice scene
    • Pay attention to the background and the foreground
    • Use the zoom feature to close in on the photo scene you want to capture
    • Use the Macro setting for close-up shots (object on the table for instance)
    • Adjust the White Balance for light objects in the shade
  • Review the photos using the LCD viewer and delete ones that you do not want