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Ancient Egypt 3100BC-350AD

Ancient Egypt 3100BC-350AD

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Ancient Egypt 3100BC-350AD

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  1. Ancient Egypt 3100BC-350AD

  2. Ancient civilizations of Egypt

  3. Egypt-physical geography

  4. Egyptian government • PHARAOHS-government and religious leader (living god) • Duties-made laws, led army, head of religion, collected taxes, responsible for people’s well-being, safety • Theocracy-religion and government were closely related • The successor was usually the eldest son • Powerful central government-told people what to do, limitless power and control • Many government officials to help with duties, including: • Vizier-Close advisor to pharaoh, judge, similar to prime minister • Regional governors, reported to Vizier • Generals/military commanders • Religious leaders (priests) • Treasurers • Public works-directed labor • Directed agriculture, monuments, etc. • Tax collectors • Scribes-everything was archived

  5. Egyptian government • Many government officials were royal relatives, some worked their way up through loyalty • Strong army to protect riches and for protection • Professional army • Citizens used when necessary • Taxed people to pay for canals, temples, tombs, monuments, many government workers-heavy taxes • Farmers had to pay a percentage of their crop to the royal grain bank, others paid through labor/work • Used grain to pay workers, build army, etc. • Built pyramids, monuments, temples, shrines, obelisks, statues to glorify power and success of pharaohs • Mix of government, religion, and belief in pharaohs allowed for power and stability

  6. Famous Pharaohs and eras

  7. Great pyramids at Giza

  8. White chapel/Karnak

  9. White chapel/Karnak

  10. Dayr al-Bahri

  11. Abu Simbel

  12. Egyptian culture/classes • Class system created and maintained stability • Most were poor, just like Mesopotamia • Usually belonged to the same class as parents, little chance of social mobility • All classes cherished family life and children • Married within social group • Lived with extended family • Chariot races, music, and dance popular among all classes-used Nile River for recreation • Towns and villages located on higher ground near Nile to prevent flooding • Poor lived close together in small homes • Flat roof for storage (little rain) • Wealthy lived outside of town on an estate • Gardens, atrium, slave quarters, banquet room • Men-head of household, supported the family • Trained sons at an early age to take on their line of work • Only the sons of the rich went to school-scribes • Usually a farmer, illiterate

  13. Women’s role • Expected to raise children, maintain the house, and teach girls homemaking skills • By law had the same rights as men • Own land, buy businesses • Could take men to court if mistreated • Ask for divorce • Represent themselves in legal matters • Lower classes • Worked in the fields/markets in some cases • Servants and musicians for upper class families • Upper classes • Wore makeup, jewelry, nail polish, eye liner, dyed their hair • In charge of slaves and servants • Some were doctors, government officials, priestesses

  14. PHARAOH • Head of government and religion • Seen as a god • Their word was law EGYPTIAN SOCIAL CLASSES/SOCIAL PYRAMID • GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS • Assist/carry out pharaoh’s orders • Mostly from noble families • Powerful and wealthy • Luxurious lifestyle-homes • Meat, fruits/vegetables, bread, wine • Had entertainment at banquets PRIESTS-Powerful and respected. Landowners, in charge of temples/ceremonies, high priests advised pharaoh, performed healings, sometimes women, temple priests took care of that particular god, special role in burial practices, embalming SCRIBES-Official writers and record keepers, well paid and respected, men only, came from all classes, had to attend scribe school run by priests, had to memorize hieroglyphs, very harsh and difficult, long hours, teachers were strict, carried scribing tools everywhere, ARTISANS- carpenters, metal workers, painters, sculptors, stone carvers, weavers, jewelers, potters. Highly skilled but had little status. Made jewelry and furniture, painted scenes of pharaohs and daily life. The most skilled were the stone carvers who made statues, engravings, tombs, monuments. True middle class of Egypt. PEASANTS- Largest social group. Worked the land (planting, seeding, irrigating) and building projects, unskilled laborers but depended on, revolved around the Nile and the three seasons: flood season, planting season, harvest season. Lived in mud brick houses, simple diet of vegetables, fish, homemade bread; they rarely ate meat.

  15. Religion in ancient Egypt • Polytheistic-believed in many gods • Isis, Osiris, Ra • Gods controlled all places and things • Gave frequent offerings to gods • Gods portrayed as animals in pictures • PHARAOHS-center of religion on earth • Theocracy-head of government and religion • Believed to be gods • Worshipped during life and after death • Belief in afterlife • Mummification of rich people, pharaohs • Tombs/chambers for the dead-----pyramids are the largest of these tombs • Food, servants, pets, clothing, tools, treasures were buried with the body • Never ending afterlife, tombs last forever • Mummification for preservation of body, internal organs removed • Mummies buried in sarcophagi • Common people not allowed in temples

  16. Egyptian writing-Hieroglyphics • System of 800 picture symbols • Read in columns and rows • Kept records of : • Grain and food supply inventories • Court cases and trial transcripts • Military records • Wills and deeds • Census • Conscription lists • Memos, letters, journals • Tax records • Used sharpened reeds with black and red ink • Used wood/stone tablets and papyrus paper to write on

  17. Hieroglyphics-examples

  18. Egyptian laws • No remains of a formal Egyptian legal code-based on guidelines (common sense of right and wrong) • Only two Egypt-wide decrees ever found: anti-corruption and religious bribery • Theocracy-right and wrong clearly defined • Pharaoh wanted the power to add, change, interpret, enforce laws anytime (not written) • All people viewed as equals under the law • No trials by ordeal (like Mesopotamia)-going into the river and the winner was favored by the gods (survived vs. drowned) • Justice was imminent and retributive • Viziers often acted as judges • Minor cases tried by a local council of elders Ma’at (goddess of world order)-represented truth, order, balance, and justice)

  19. Egyptian laws • Criminal law • Crimes against government prosecuted by state-presumption of guilt • Victims of crimes had to bring cases to court • Beatings were common and proven way of getting truth and confessions • Confession was the basis for conviction-so was evidence, witnesses, and torture • Judges expected to be impartial, base decisions on evidence-bribing justices was a serious crime • Tomb robbery considered one of the most heinous crimes • Civil law • Property divided equally upon man’s death by wife and children • Rights of property and safety followed very strictly • No lawyers-present own arguments to judge • Tax evasion was considered a serious crime

  20. Egyptian laws • Punishments • Punishments fit crimes accordingly • Punishment was unequal-harsher for lower classes and slaves • Often the entire family of the guilty person suffered as well • Imprisoned, exiled • Stolen or embezzled goods-return goods plus double the value • Corporal punishment common-lashings with a cane, bleeding cuts, branding as permanent disgrace • Exiled to work in mines (or other forced labor), restitution, fines, confiscation, imprisonment, cutting off hand, tongue, nose, ear • Capital punishment-impalement, burning alive, drowning, decapitation • Death sentences rare compared to other ancient civilizations

  21. Historical contributions/inventions of ancient Egypt • Most wealthy and sophisticated society of it’s time • Pyramids, monuments, tombs, Obelisks, columns • Math calculations-addition, subtraction, division, geometry, fractions, measuring area, decimal system based on 10 • Engineering and science (pyramids, etc.) • Medicine from plants • Simple surgery-setting bones • Astronomy-365 day calendar-keep track of seasons and Nile flooding • Surveying-measuring land/boundary markers using geometry • Hieroglyphics-Writing using pictures-pictograms, symbols to depict history and religion • First known national government • Needles, nails • Mummification and embalming • Trade networks-along Nile and with other cultures • Achievements influenced other cultures-Greeks, Romans • Writing for record keeping • Grain and food supply inventories, court cases, military records, wills, deeds, census, conscription lists, letters, journals, tax records • Papyrus-first paper, from reeds • Use of ink-black, red • Built canals, dykes, etc. to harness the Nile River for irrigation • Glass • Cotton linens • Famous library at Alexandria • Rosetta stone • Furniture • Literature-poems, wisdom literature, dramas, folktales • Stone working-carving, jewelry, monuments • Early dentistry • Pulley • Sundial-to calculate time and seasons • Make-up and perfume from flowers • Art-painting and sculpture • Frontalism • One eye/profile view of face • Shoulders and chest are front view • Side view of legs

  22. Other resources/helpful links