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Acids and Bases. Solutions of Chemical Energy. What is an Acid?. A substance that dissociates and produces H + (protons) when in solution Examples : (strong acids) HCl , H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3. Dissociation of HCl. HCl ( aq ) -> H + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq )

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acids and bases

Acids and Bases

Solutions of Chemical Energy

what is an acid
What is an Acid?

A substance that dissociates and produces H+ (protons) when in solution

Examples: (strong acids)

HCl, H2SO4, HNO3

dissociation of hcl
Dissociation of HCl

HCl(aq) -> H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)

Each mole of HCl will produce 1 mole of H+

What is different about H2SO4?

what is a base
What is a Base?

A base is any substance that dissociates to produce OH- (hydroxide ions) in solution

Examples: (strong bases)

NaOH, LiOH, KOH

dissociation of naoh
Dissociation of NaOH

NaOH(aq) -> Na+(aq) + OH-(aq)

Each mole of NaOH will dissociate to produce 1 mole of OH-

neutralization reactions
Neutralization Reactions:

A type of double-replacement reaction that produces a “salt” and water from an acid and base

HCl + NaOH ----> NaCl + H2O

Acid + Base ----> Salt + Water

characteristics of acids and bases
Bases Taste Bitter

(Soap)

Acids Taste Sour

(Sour Patch Kids, Lemons, Vinegar)

Characteristics of Acids and Bases:
weak acids and bases
Weak Acids and Bases
  • Do not completely dissociate
  • Are still dangerous energetic solutions
  • More common in nature
  • Acetic Acid (vinegar)
  • Citric Acid (lemon jucie)
  • Found in buffered solutions
  • Have pHs closer to 7 at higher solution concentrations
ph scale concentration of h ions
pH Scale (Concentration of H+ ions)

A pH of 7.0 is “neutral”

A pH >7.0 is “basic”

(The farther from neutral, the stronger the base)

A pH <7.0 is “acidic”

(The farther from neutral, the stronger the acid)

math of ph
Math of pH
  • -log(H+ concentration in moles/Liter)
  • Eg. 1.00 X 10-7 M, The pH is 7
  • Eg. 1.00 X 10-1M, The pH is 1
  • Eg. 1.00 X 10-14M, The pH is 14
strength of acids and bases
Strength of Acids and Bases

Measured on the pH Scale

Range from 1-14

each indicator changes at a certain ph range
Each Indicator Changes at a Certain pH Range

Indicators are helpful when performing Titrations

buffered solutions
Buffered solutions
  • Resist forming more H+ or OH- ions
  • Made from a weak acid and a salt
  • Very important to life (Blood is 7.35 – 7.45 pH)
equipment for titrations
Equipment for Titrations:

Used to measure unknown pH by comparison to a known

Burets are used to measure highly accurate volumes of solutions