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The Child’s Growth : Brain, Body, Motor Skills, and Sexual Maturation. Sigit Wisnu Tamtomo 69080061. The Child’s Growth : Brain, Body, Motor Skills, and Sexual Maturation. This chapter, we will examine :

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the child s growth brain body motor skills and sexual maturation1
The Child’s Growth :Brain, Body, Motor Skills, and Sexual Maturation

This chapter, we will examine :

The development of the brain and the way genetic and environmental forces work together do determine brain growth and function.

Explore motor and growth patterns that infants and children follow and the factors that speed up or slow down these patterns.

Explore puberty, its characteristics and the factor that influence its course.

brain development in infancy
Brain Development in Infancy

The largest portion of human brain consists of the two conected hemisphere that make up the celebrum.

Cerebrum is a mass of tissue that embodies attributes particular to human ( speech and self-awareness ) and attributes shared with other vertebrate animals ( sensory perception, motor abbilities, and memory )

brain development in infancy1
Brain Development in Infancy

Cerebral cortex

The covering layer of the human cerebrum.

Specific function, such as seeing, hearing, moving, feeling, thinking, speaking can be traced to specific regions of the cerebral cortex.

brain development in infancy2
Brain Development in Infancy


A cell in the body’s nervous system consisting of a cell body.

A long projection called an axon

Several shorter projections called dendrites

Neurons send and receive neural impulse or message throughout the brain and nervous system

brain development in infancy3
Brain Development in Infancy


Glial Cell is a nerve cell that supports and protects neurons and serves to encase them in myelin sheaths

Myelination is a process by which glial cells encase neurons in sheaths of the fatty substance myelin

Neuron proliferation is the rapid formation of neurons in the developing organism’s brain

brain development in infancy4
Brain Development in Infancy


Sysnapse is a specialized site of intercellular communication where information is exchanges between nerve cells, usually by means of a chemical neurotransmitter

physical growth

Physical Growth

Cephalocaudal Development

Growth occurs from the head downward, the brain and neck develop earlier than the legs and trunk

Proximal-distal pattern

Growth from the center outward, the internal organs develop earlier than the arms and hands

the factors are affect height and weight

The factors are affect Height and Weight



Physical training

why people are growing taller
Why people are growing taller ?

Medical care, personal health and nutrition have improved.

socioeconomic conditions have generally improved ( living conditions such as housing and sanitation )

Genetic factors ( intermarriage among people of different racial and ethnic background )


Do you think my body is good looking ?


I don’t think so..My body is better than you agree?



The condition in which a person’s weight is 30% or more over average weight for his or her height and frame.

In a study of 5 to 8 year old Australian Children, nearly 60% of the girls and 35% of the boys wanted a thinner.

why do children gain too much weight

Why do children gain too much weight ?

In north America, nearly 18% of children are obese. 14% of preschoolers are obese.

More than 20% of Mexian American boys and African Americans girls are overweight; Asian Americans are the least likely to be overweight.

why do children gain too much weight2

Why do children gain too much weight ?


Little exercise

Too much watching TV

Junk Food

consequence of obesity

Consequence of obesity

Variety of phisical problems :


Sleep problems



High cholesterol levels

Cardiovascular problems

Psychological problems :

Body image disturbances

Discrimination by ther thinner peers

treating overweight children
Treating overweight children

Involve the family ( parents, sibling, peers ) in any treatmant programs.

To increase the child’s physical expenditure of energy in innovative ways , such as :

additional 2000 steps per day

Reducing calories by replacing sugar with noncaloric sweeterner

Spend less time in sedentary behaviors, such as waching TV and playing computer games

To increase physical activity by riding an exercise bike or exercising to an aerobics tape



Scidimering keding keding

Scidimering kedu................ I LOVE U

Scidimering keding keding

Scidimering kedu................ I LOVE U

I LOVE U in the morning

And in the afternoon

I LOVE U in the evening

And underneth the moon......uppsss

Scidimering keding keding

Scidimering kedu................ I LOVE U

eating disorders in adolescence
Eating disorders in adolescence

Anorexia Nervosa

An eating disorder in which people, usually young women, are preoccupied with avoiding abesity and often diet to the point of starvation

eating disorders in adolescence1
Eating disorders in adolescence

Bulimia Nervosa

An eating disorder in which people, usually young women, alternate periods of binge eating with vomiting and other means of compensating for the weight gained.

sexual maturation


Sexual Maturation

Hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete certain hormones

The onset of sexual maturity

what determines the timing of puberty
What determines the timing of puberty ?


Girls whose mothers matured early tend to mature early themselves.

Environmental factors

Gymnasts, figure skaters, and ballet dancers who practice intensively, perform regulary, and diet to keep fit may delay the onset of menstruation by as much as 1 year ( Brooks-Gunn & Warren, 1985 )

In fact, of dancers in one study, only 30% were either early or “on time”, in contrast to 80% of a comparison group of girls who were not dancers ( Brooks-Gunn, 1988 )

After girls reach menarche, their periods may not be regular if they train hard and keep their weight low. Runner and gymnasts sometimes stop menstuating or become amenorrheic ( Brooks-Gunn & Warren, 1985 )