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Brain, Body, & Behavior

Brain, Body, & Behavior

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Brain, Body, & Behavior

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  1. Brain, Body, & Behavior NERVOUS SYTEM NEURONS BRAIN NEUROTRANSMITTERS ENDOCRINE SYSTEM IMMUNE SYSTEM

  2. Some cells in your nervous system are more than 3 feet long? • Our bodies produce natural painkillers similar to some narcotic drugs? • 95% of fetuses suck their right thumbs? • Raising the body temp. of a finger may relieve the pain of a migraine headache? • Men’s & women’s bodies produce both male & female sex hormones? DID YOU KNOW THAT…

  3. ALL behaviors & mental processes are influenced by or based on biology • study the brain in detail • Behaviors & mental processes can’t be fully understood through bio alone!!! • Oversimplify = not credible Intro

  4. AVOID THE “BIOLOGY IS DESTINY” PITFALL • WE ARE THE PRODUCT OF AN INTRICATE INTERACTION OF BIO. & ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

  5. NERVOUS SYSTEM

  6. Brain, spinal cord, nerves • processes info. from: • 1) inside the body • 2) external environ. • NEURONS • cells in the nervous system (brain cells & nerve cells • Specialized to respond to signals & send signals of their own NERVOUS SYSTEM

  7. INPUT: receiving info. about what is going on inside & outside (senses) your body • PROCESSING: combining info. with past experiences (if any) & decide how to react/behave • OUTPUT: brain activates muscles to act on what to do about it (the info. received) 3 Main Functions

  8. Q: How can the nervous system do this? • A: Neurons! must COMMUNICATE • Neurotransmitters • Electrical signals • 100 billion neurons that are separate but still able to alternate signals from one circuit to another INPUT  PROCESSING  OUTPUT

  9. 1) CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM • brain & spinal cord • Info is sent here from PNS to be shot up the spinal cord to the brain to be processed . • The ‘CEO’ of the nervous system DIVISIONS

  10. 2) PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYTEM • all nerves not in the brain & spinal cord. • PNScollects info. to be sent to the CNS.

  11. 2 subdivisions of PNS • Somatic: • sensory nerves & motor nerves • Autonomic: • Automatic processes • Signals must make a ‘full circuit’ in order for you to process sensory & motor info • Peripheral nerves  spinal cord  brain spinal cord  original peripheral nerves

  12. Nerve cell • more advanced than your typical cell • involved w/ receiving, moving, & processing info. • PARTS • Cell Body Receptor Axon terminals • Dendrites Axon • Synapse Vesicles • Neurotransmitters Myelin NEURONS

  13. Cell Body: contains a nucleus that caries DNA info; determines how the cell functions • Dendrites: fibers of the neuron that receive signals/info from the axons of other neurons. Dendrites Detect signals from other neurons • Carries the signals to the cell body to be interpreted PARTS OF THE NEURON

  14. Axon: fibers that carry signals away from the cell body to where communication occurs with other neurons. Axons carry signals Away from the cell body to axon terminals • Axon Terminal: areas @ the end of an axon where neurotransmitters are released • Synapse: gap between neurons. Where neurotransmitters “jump” from one neuron to another.

  15. Neurotransmitters: chemicals that transfer information from one neuron to another by “jumping” across the synapse. • can only “fit” into its own receptors • Vesicles: Little “bubbles” where neurotransmitters are stored at the end of an axon. • Receptor: where neurotransmitters fit into the receiving dendrite of the next neuron. • Myelin sheath: insulating protein layer that surrounds the axon in order to speed up communication & contain the electric pulses.

  16. Dendrites accept neurotransmitters from other neurons and transfer that info to the cell body. • That info is shot down the axon in the form of electrical signals. • When these electrical signals reach the end of the axon, it releases the neurotransmitters (chemical signals) from the vesicles. HOW DO NEURONS COMMUNICATE?

  17. The neurotransmitters “jump” across the gap between neurons, known as the synapse. • The neurotransmitters then bind to their proper receptors on the dendrites of the receiving neuron (like a puzzle). • Dendrites get excited when they detect neurotransmitters in their receptors & send info. to the cell body. • THE WHOLE PROCESS STARTS OVER 

  18. ‘CLOSE UP’ VIEW OF NEURAL COMMUNICATION BTW 2 NEURONS

  19. 1) NEURONS EITHER FIRE OR DON’T FIRE. IT’S “ALL OR NOTHING” • rate of firing can differ • 2) Can only communicate w/ other neurons that are close to them. • 3) MUST MAKE FULL CIRCUIT! • Nerves  spinal cord  brain  spinal cord  same nerves Rules of Neural Communication

  20. When you are ‘killing brain cells’, you are killing NEURONS & CONNECTIONS!

  21. Wasting away of motor neurons in brain & spinal cord • Progressive, disabling, & fatal • Symptoms • inability to control mvmt, loss of muscle control • Neurons waste away = muscles waste away too LOU GEHRIG’S DISEASE

  22. Brain dev. disorder – abnormalities & deficits in: • Social interaction • Restricted interests & repetitive behavior • Deficit in mirror neurons (?) • Probs empathizing w/ & imitate others AUTISM

  23. Immune system slowly destroys Myelin sheaths • Slows communication • Progressive & fatal • 350,000 Americans • onset = 20 – 40 yrs old • Symptoms: loss of the ability to speak, walk, write, eventually breath & heartbeat MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (MS)

  24. THE BRAIN

  25. Sits in a fluid • There are psych. changes when the brain experiences trauma or chemical changes . • DIVIDED INTO 3 MAIN PARTS • a.k.a ‘the 3 brains’ • each contains specialized structures THAT MAGNIFICENT BRAIN OF YOURS!

  26. most primitive part; vitals • Incoming signals reach here 1st • Medulla: vital bodily functions (breathing, swallowing, circulation) • Reticular Formation: “net”work of fibers (neurons); arousal & attn • Cerebellum: basic motor activities; coordination (sequencing/ timing); posture, balance, normal speech patterns HINDBRAIN

  27. Integrates mvmt w. sensory info, & relays it up to the rest of the brain • Ex. Loud noise  turn in head in direction of the sound MIDBRAIN

  28. most complex aspects • Thalamus: relay station for sending messages to & from parts of the brain • Hypothalamus: ‘pleasure center’; regulates hunger, thirst & sex drive; controls rage • Hippocampus: regulateemotion & form LT memories FOREBRAIN

  29. Cerebrum: high level thinking process • Emotions, memories, personality, logic, decision making, planning, etc. • Largest part • Div. into 2 hemispheres (halves) & 8 lobes

  30. Cerebrum Whole brain

  31. Corpus Callosum –band of fibers in the mid of the brain – connects the 2 hem.

  32. Cerebrum / 4 lobes • Each is specialized • all work together in order to collect, analyze, store, & respond to information • All 4 lobes are found in both hemispheres (mirror image) • Deep groves in the brain mark where the difft lobes are LOBES of CEREBRUM

  33. PARIETAL • body & skin sensations • Touch, pressure, temp., pain, movement • TEMPORAL • sound sensations • auditory info; involved in hearing, memory, speaking

  34. OCCIPITAL • visual info (vision center) • Optic nerves directly connected to here • FRONTAL • Arranges incoming info into meaningful perceptions • Most advanced cog. processes • Language, organizing, planning, problem solving, decision making, personality, learning, dreaming, emotions, memories, creativity, & thinking • Control of the body

  35. major changes in behavior • Able to see the connection btw damaged parts of the brain & behavior • Why did he survive?  POOR PHINEAS! 

  36. Before • friendly; good judgment, cooperative, enjoyable • After • short-temper; swore; urinated & undressed in public; said inappropriate things; aggressive; violent; • Damage to what lobe? FRONTAL! • Severe changes in personality, judgment, & rational thought • prevented censoring of thoughts, ideas, & social functioning

  37. Right & Left Cerebral Hemispheres

  38. Lateralized • 2 hemispheres are specialized for processing certain kinds of info. • Each hem. controls the opposite ½ of the body • Right 1/2 controls left side of body • Left 1/2 controls right side of body LATERALIZATION OF THE CEREBRUM

  39. We constantly use both • compliment each other • Work in harmony to jointly control human functions • 2 hems. connected by the corpus callosum. (communication) • processed in one half, then sent to the other to be processed… then both ‘analysis’ are integrated to produce one flow of thought & behavior

  40. FUNCTIONS/ CHARACTERISTICS • LEFT HEMISPHERE • LANGUAGE (verbal): speaking, understanding language, reading, writing • Sequences & order; time • Math: algebra, calculus, physics • Detail-oriented • ‘Safe & logical’ • Process info. logical & sequential

  41. Right Hemisphere • Nonverbal: body language; emotions; visual symbols & images • Spatial: patterns; objects in ‘space’; art & music • Math: geometry • ‘Big picture’ oriented • ‘Impulsive’ • Process info. intuitively, simultaneously, & randomly