Child Development Theories. Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development. A baby’s brain is about one quarter the size of an adults’. Scientists have found that babies’ brains develop in response to stimulation.
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Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development.
Although researches don’t always agree, scientific researchers have agreed upon the five following general rules.
Birth to 1½ yrs
1½ to 3 yrs
3 to 6 years
6 yrs to puberty
A time of
outside of the
The infant constructs an understanding of the world
by coordinating sensory experiences with physical
actions: progressing from reflexive, instinctual action
at birth to the beginning of symbolic thought toward
end of the stage.
Birth to 2 years of age
The child begins to represent the world with words
and images. These words and images reflect
increased symbolic thinking and go beyond the
connection of sensory information and physical action.
2 to 7 years of age
Concrete Operational Stage:
The child can now reason logically about concrete
events and classify objects into different sets.
7 to 11 years of age
11–15 years of age through adulthood
Formal Operational Stage
The adolescent reasons in more abstract idealistic
and logical ways.
Information is taken into brain
Information is used as basis of behaviors and interactions
Information gets processed, analyzed, and stored until use
Child imitates behavior
that seems rewarded
School & classroom
Religion & groups
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory of Development
Observed correlation: as permissive parenting increases, children’s self-control decreases
such as genetic
Possible Explanations for Correlational Data