Child Growth and Development Module 1: Principles of Child Growth and Development
Growth We defined growth as specific _______________ and increases in the child’s size. During the first year of an infant’s life, babies can grow ______________ ______ and triple their birth weight. After the first year, a baby’s growth in length slows to _____ inches a year for the next two years and continues from age two or three to puberty at a rate of two to three inches each year. A major growth spurt occurs at the ________________________. • Girls generally enter puberty between ages ___ to ___ years of age. • Boys usually enter puberty at ages ___ to ___ years of age.
Similarities in Growth • Growth proceeds from the __________________ and from the center of the __________________ ______________. • Children gain control of the ________ and _______ first, then the arms and finally the legs. • At birth, the brain, heart, and spinal cord are _______________________ to support the infant. • As children grow, the ______ and _______ muscles develop followed by the finger and toe muscles.
Differences in Growth • Children _______________ in their growth. Some children are taller, some shorter. Some children are smaller, while others are larger. • These differences are completely normal. Normal growth is supported by good _________________, adequate ________________ and regular ____________________. • Children do not grow at perfectly ______________________ throughout childhood. • Children will experience weeks or months of slightly slower growth followed by ________________________________. • Difference in the amount of growth can be a source of ____________________ for some children. It is important to help the children in your care understand that these differences are _______________, that each child is special, and to help children develop a sense of self-acceptance.
Key Point ____________ is defined as specific body changes and increases in the child’s size. Growth proceeds from the _________ downward and from the ____________ of the body outward. Children differ in their growth.
Key Point ________________ typically refers to an increase in complexity, a change from relatively simple to more complicated. _____________ usually involves a progression along a continuous _____________ pathway on which the child acquires more refined knowledge, behaviors, and skills. The ___________ is basically the same for all children; however, the ___________ varies.
Principles of Child Development 1. Developmental Sequence _____________ ________________________________ 2. Development Proceeds from __________ _______________________________ 3. Development is ____________________ 4. Development Proceeds _______________ _______________________________ 5. All Areas of Development are ________________________
1. Development Sequence is __________for All -children develop in ___________________________ -there is a _______________________ of dev that occurs as a child grows -while the sequence is ___________ and the behaviors or skills emerge in the same order, children can take more or less ________ with each behavior or skill -they can move forward, ______________ for a short time, then move forward again -some children may ______________ a behavior or skill as they move forward
2. Development Proceeds from ______________ -dev progresses from a beginning point moving in a ______________________________ -just as growth of an infant proceeds from the ________ down and from the _________ of the body to the limbs, dev of behaviors and skills moves from general to specific -as children mature, their bodily changes occur in a sequential order and give children new _______________ -as the brain and nervous system develops, a child’s thinking ______________ skills and motor physical skills __________________
3. Development is _______________ -in children who ______________ normally, behaviors and skills they have already acquired become the basis for new behaviors and skills -there is _________________ from one phase of dev to the next -children continue to add _________ behaviors and skills as they perfect their ability to walk, to write or draw and to speak. -continuation of dev can easily be seen in children as they _______________ from age two to age twelve. Holding a pencil develops into writing and drawing
4. Development Proceeds at_________________ -each child is different, and the __________ at which individual children develop are different -although the ________________ for dev are usually the same for all children, the rates at which individual children reach each stage will be different -some children will ___________ at 10 months and others at 18 months -dev is never uniform, but is ______________
5. All Areas of Development are ______________ -areas of development, called ___________: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ -when one area of dev is _____________, one or more other areas of dev are also involved
Key Point There are certain periods of time when children are especially ____________ to their surroundings and interactions with other people. These periods of time are tied to brain development and readiness for learning. Both will directly affect the ________________ of developmental milestones.
Basics of Brain Development -there are ___________ brain cells at birth, but there is minimal “wiring” between them -a ____________ is the connection between two nerve sells. Synaptic connections are being formed throughout the brain throughout life. -early on, these new pathways are simple, vulnerable & growing rapidly. Later, the brain begins to surround them with a kind of _____________ (myelin) that offers some protection to the connections. -messages between synapses are sent ______________________ -stimulation & ____________________ determine what connections are initially formed -_________________ that are encountered early & often, as well as the child’s successful responses, get “wired” into the brain
Basics of Brain Dev cont. -practice & __________ help determine the strength and durability of a connection -there are times in a child’s growth that are referred to as “__________________________________.” These are certain periods of time when children are especially receptive to their surroundings and interactions with other people. -these periods of time are tied to brain dev and _____________ for learning that will directly affect the achievement of developmental milestones. For example, language skills depend on hearing other people speak. -if there is not adequate _________ stimulation in the first years of life, language skills, especially grammar & pronunciation, are negatively affected -this is critically important for young children since the window of opportunity for learning language skills begins to close around 5 yr old.
Experiences and Environmental Influences that Impact Brain Development _________________ you do in the child care setting has an effect on the child’s development and learning. • How you diaper, ____________, and put to sleep; • The way you __________, and the way you comfort; • The amount of ___________ the child has to play in, and the ambient lighting; • The _____________ you sing; • The toys you provide; • The ______________ you serve; • These things and more
Implications for Learning Why should child care professionals learn about principles of child development? • Care and the environment can ____________ ___________________________________ • The knowledgeable caregiver can __________ ___________________________________ • When a child is struggling with a new skill, ___________________________________ ___________________________________ • The knowledgeable caregiver can “detect” indicators of possible delays, and __________ ___________________________________
Key Point All of your interactions with a child have an ____________ on the child’s development and learning. It is important to be ____________ of what the child is learning while in your care.
As a child care provider you should always be on the lookout for signs of _____________________ and be aware of appropriate methods of dealing with children experiencing developmental delays. • You may use the knowledge about the Principles of Child Growth and Development to spot the child who is not yet showing the ______________________ _________ we would expect in a certain age range. • Certain aspects of development may be ________ or non-existent, depending on the child. • Just because a child may be ________________ ___________ in an area, it is important to continue to help the child develop as much as possible in the area in which he is delayed.
Developmentally ______________ practices for this child may differ from those expected for the child’s age. • Include the child in all activities in which he can ____________ participate. • Increased supervision or attention may be required to ensure safety and well-being. Such a child may also be in need of professional help such as ___________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ • It is important to remember that you should ___ _______________________. If you have any concerns regarding the growth and development of a child, the concerns should be presented to • the appropriate party.
Key Point The ___________ and _______________ generally typical for children at a certain age range may not be possible for some children who are developmentally delayed.
What is a _____________ Disability? • Developmental disability – • Appropriate support in the 1st three years of life of a child with special needs is called early intervention, & the sooner intervention services begin the better. • Two specific developmental disabilities that you may see are: • Autism – • Down syndrome -
Inclusion • The ________________________________, or ADA, a federal law, requires child care programs to comply with specific accessibility guidelines to support children with developmental disabilities. Achieving inclusion may require special training for staff members, enhanced learning opportunities for children, or adaptive or modified materials, toys, and equipment. • The _________________________________, also known as IDEA, ensures that children with disabilities ages 3 to 21 receive a free & appropriate public education & that early intervention services are provided to eligible infants & toddlers. • When child care programs fully support children with developmental disabilities, they are said to be inclusive. • A child care program can be inclusive by: • - ________________________________________________ • - establishing a routine and schedule • - ________________________________________________ • - nurturing language development • - ________________________________________________ • - assisting families in meeting their children’s needs
Positive Behavior Supports • The best way to guide the behavior of children with developmental disabilities is to use __________________________________ while providing developmentally appropriate individualized care. • Prevention, redirection, and positive reinforcement are three types of positive behavior supports. • Prevention: • Redirection: • Positive reinforcement:
Americans with Disabilities Act, or ADA • Passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990 sent a clear message to the American people that children and adults with ____________ are entitled to the ___________________________ that others enjoy. • This means that children with disabilities are legally entitled to ___________________ to community-based child care settings. • However, a legal mandate by itself is not sufficient to make available ___________________ and responsive child care options for children with disabilities. • Although the picture is improving, families continue to have ____________ finding inclusive child care programs for their children.
How would you address the special needs of each of these children? -a child who is physically-challenged -a child who is socially-challenged -a child who is shy or emotionally-challenged -a child who is gifted -a child who is mentally-challenged
Key Point Children with disabilities are ________________ ____________ to equal access to community-based child care settings.
A Day in the Life… Single working parent who works 8 to 5 job and has one child in child care… wake up time? time to drive to center? pick up time? dinner time? bath time? bedtime? How much time does this child spend in interaction with a parent? How much opportunity does the parent get to observe the child’s growing repertoire of skills?
Key Point Child care professionals may spot ______________ ________________ before the parents do. This is why it is important to _______________ the basic child growth and development principles.
Child Growth and Development Module 2: Child Development Theories
What is a theory? A theory is…
Maslow and the Hierarchy of Needs • Maslow developed a hierarchy of __________ ______________. • In a hierarchy, one set of things is _____________ on the next, both of which are dependent on the next, and so on. • Maslow’s hierarchy has ____ levels, is pictured as a pyramid and goes from bottom (human need number 1) to top (human need number 5). • Like a _____________, it builds one level upon the level below. • Satisfying the needs on the second level depend on the _________ level needs being ______________ and ready to be built upon.
Maslow’s Hierarchy Level 5: ____________________________ Level 4: ___________________________________ Level 3: __________________________________________ Level 2: _______________________________________________ Level 1: ____________________________________________________
Key Point Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs include __________________, ________________________, ________________________, ________________________, ________________________.The lowest levels of needs must be met before higher needs can be accomplished. Successfully meeting the needs at each level results in fulfilling one’s life with purpose and meaning.
Erik Erikson • Erikson is recognized as a ____________ psychologist who can be compared to ________________ because of his theory that humans develop in stages. • He developed ____ psychosocial stages through which humans develop throughout their entire lifetime. • Individuals must go through each of these stages, called __________. • Moving successfully through these conflicts develops a strong _________ and ____________ life.
LEVEL AGE CONFLICT MEANING 1 INFANT (0 TO 1) TRUST VS. MISTRUST 2 TODDLER (1 TO 3) AUTONOMY VS. SHAME & DOUBT 3 PRESCHOOL (4 & 5) INITIATIVE VS. GUILT
4 GRADE SCHOOL (6 TO 11) INDUSTRY VS. INFERIORITY 5 HIGH SCHOOL IDENTITY VS. ROLE CONFUSION 6 EARLY ADULT INTIMACY VS. ISOLATION 7 MIDDLE ADULT GENERATIVITY VS. STAGNATION 8 LATE ADULT INTEGRITY VS. DESPAIR
Key Point ___________ theory on emotional and personality development describes eight conflicts that must be resolved at stages of throughout life. During the childhood years, encouraging ___________, _________________, _________________ and industry can resolve conflicts and create a resilient social and emotional life.
Jean _______ • He is most known for his work on the psychology of __________________. • Piaget was interested in learning how children develop an ____________________ of the world. • His theory was based on the concept of __________________ structures. • Cognitive structures are patterns of ___________ or _______________ action that underlie acts of intelligence and correspond to stages of child development. • According to Piaget, children develop the ability to learn in _____ basic stages. • In each stage, development focuses around acquiring a different set of related ______________________ and • __________________.
JEAN PIAGET: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Stage 1: ________ _______ 0-2 yrs -___________________________________________________ -understand world by physically manipulating objects -trial & error problem-solving -________________________________________ Stage 2: _______________ 2-7 yrs -____________________________________________________________ -uses symbols to mentally represent objects -increase development of language & concepts -____________________________________________________________ -egocentric thought processes Stage 3: _________________ 7-11 yrs -__________________________________________________________ -___________________________________________________________ -are able to make realizations about why things happen -understand how things relate to one another Stage 4: _________________ 11+ yrs -___________________________________________________________ -begin to think about thinking -think in abstract terms -___________________________________________________________
Key Point Piaget’s four stages of ___________________ explain how children interact with their environment to construct knowledge. Each stage represents a change from one type of thought or behavior to another and builds on the stage before.
Lev __________ • He developed the _____________________ theory of learning. • Children acquire _______________ through culture. • Children learn through _______________________ experiences shared with a knowledgeable adult or peer. Initially, the person interacting with the child assumes more responsibility for guiding the learning. As the child learns, the responsibility is gradually transferred to him. This is an instructional technique called ________________. • A child can perform a task under adult guidance or with peer ____________________ that could not be achieved alone. Vygotsky called this the _______________________________________ and claimed that learning occurred in this zone.
Vygotsky’s theory for learning • _____________________ must be developed where children play an active role in their own education as well as the education of their peers. • In ________________, the adult provides children with the opportunity to extend their current skills and knowledge. • Reciprocal teaching ___________________________ _________________________________________. • The process has four main strategies for success. They are: • ___________ a question for understanding; • ___________ that they are understanding what they are reading; • Stopping to _____________ from clues what they think will happen in the learning material and • _________________ what they have learned.
Key Point _______________ socio-cultural theory of _________________ development focuses on the connections between people and the culture in which they interact. The culture that surrounds children and their social interaction leads to continuous step-by-step changes in their learning and behavior.
Child Growth and Development Module 3: Influences Affecting Child Development
How old? Does the child sound “typical”? If not, what sounds atypical & why does it concern you? • Kierra has learned how to scribble with a crayon from her big sister. She can stand on her tiptoes. When she starts to sing the “ABC” song, she usually winds up with lines from “Twinkle-twinkle Little Star.” She has become pretty good at following simple instructions. She gets frustrated when she has trouble doing something. Only about half of what she says is understandable by strangers and many of her words are a mixture of Spanish and English.
How old? Does the child sound “typical”? If not, what sounds atypical & why does it concern you? 2. Julie doesn’t sleep at nap time anymore. She is very friendly and adores her older sister. She likes playing with dolls and changing their clothes. She has started to admonish the younger children, reminding them of “the rules.” She does not yet reliably count to ten, getting scrambled with random “teens.”
How old? Does the child sound “typical”? If not, what sounds atypical & why does it concern you? 3. Teddy can stand and can walk while holding onto an adult’s fingers. He recognizes and responds to his own name about half the time, but cannot hear well. He can babble, but hasn’t yet said his first really intelligible word. He gets very focused when he plays with blocks and cups. He is still drinking from a bottle, and doesn’t yet have the hang of a sippy-sup.
How old? Does the child sound “typical”? If not, what sounds atypical & why does it concern you? 4. Tina will look at you when you talk to her, and she can ask for something by pointing and saying “please.” She has a vocabulary of about 12 words that are clearly understandable. She gets anxious for a little while when one of her parents drops her off in the morning. She gets frequent stomachaches. She can pull herself up on furniture and can take a step or two before sitting down. She can pull off her hat, but not her socks.