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The DASH Diet in treating Hypertension & Type 2 Diabetes PowerPoint Presentation
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The DASH Diet in treating Hypertension & Type 2 Diabetes

The DASH Diet in treating Hypertension & Type 2 Diabetes

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The DASH Diet in treating Hypertension & Type 2 Diabetes

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  1. The DASH Diet in treating Hypertension & Type 2 Diabetes Kathleen T. Morgan Chair, Family & Community Health Sciences Special Thanks to Colorado State Univ and Western Dairy Council

  2. Hypertension & Type 2 Diabetes • 72 million people in the US age 20 and older have high blood pressure • 20.8 million – 7 % of the US population have diabetes • 13.3 % of all non-Hispanic blacks aged 20 and older have diabetes • After adjusting for population age differences, Mexican Americans, the largest Hispanic/Latino subgroup, are 1.7 times as likely to have diabetes as non-Hispanic whites.

  3. Hypertension & Type 2 Diabetes • The prevalence of hypertension is about twice as high among patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes as it is among patients without diabetes • The current obesity epidemic contributes to hypertension and type 2 diabetes • Losing as little as 10 pounds can contribute to reducing hypertension and improving glucose sensitivity.

  4. Diabetes & HTN & Disparities • African American men develop diabetes and high blood pressure earlier in life than other men and are more likely to suffer serious side-effects from these diseases • Within the African-American community, those with the highest rates of hypertension, are likely to be middle aged or older, less educated, overweight or obese, physically inactive and to have diabetes

  5. Diabetes & HTN & Disparities • Remediable factors: • Worse access to high-quality healthcare • Socioeconomic barriers to buying healthy food and necessary medications • Lack of culturally appropriate care

  6. Dietary Approaches to High Blood Pressure • DASH Diet • Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension • Promotes fruits, vegetables, whole grains and low fat dairy products • Adequate Calcium, Potassium, Magnesium • Low in red meat, sweets and sugar beverages

  7. Hypertension Prevalence • 50 million hypertensive US adults • One-third of people are unaware • Less than half of American adults have optimal blood pressure • Increases in prevalence and severity in African Americans

  8. Blood Pressure Categories - Adults

  9. Untreated Hypertension Target Organ Damage Includes: • Hypertensive heart disease • Cerebrovascular disease • Renal disease • Large vessel disease

  10. Public Health Challenge of Hypertension • Prevent BP rise with age • Decrease existing prevalence • Healthy People 2010 goal – 16% • Increase awareness and detection • Has no symptoms, called the “silent killer” • Improve control • Reduce cardiovascular risks • Increase recognition of importance of controlling systolic hypertension

  11. National High Blood Pressure Education Program Updated Recommendations to Prevent Hypertension • Maintain normal body weight for adults • BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 • Reduce sodium intake to no more than 100 mmol/day • Regular physical activity – at least 30 minutes most days of the week • Limit alcohol consumption • Maintain adequate potassium intake • Consume a diet rich in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products • Reduce saturated fat and total fat in diet JAMA, Oct 16, 2002

  12. Mineral Intake and Hypertension Calcium • American Heart Association Statement • Increasing calcium intake may preferentially lower blood pressure in salt-sensitive people • Benefits more evident with low initial calcium intakes (300-600 mg/day)

  13. Mineral Intake and Hypertension Potassium • Clinical trials and meta-analyses indicate potassium (K) supplementation lowers BP • Adequate K intake, preferably from food sources, should be maintained • Evidence is strong enough to support a health claim on high potassium foods

  14. Mineral Intake and Hypertension Magnesium • Evidence suggests an association between lower dietary magnesium intake and high blood pressure • Not enough evidence exists to justify a recommendation of increased Mg intake

  15. DASH is Unique • Tested dietary patterns rather than single nutrients • Experimental diets used common foods that can be incorporated into recommendations for the public • Investigators planned the DASH diet to be fully compatible with dietary recommendations for reducing risk of CVD, osteoporosis and cancer

  16. DASH Reduces Homocysteine Levels • Effect a result of diet high in vitamin B-rich milk and milk products, fruits and vegetables • Lowering homocysteine with DASH may reduce CVD risk an additional 7%-9% -Appel, et al. Circulation, 102:852, 2000

  17. DASH Diet Patternbased on a 2,000 calorie diet Food GroupServings* Grains 7-8 Vegetables 4-5 Fruits 4-5 Low-fat or fat free dairy 2-3 Meats, poultry, fish less than 2 Nuts, seeds, dry beans and peas 4-5/week Fats and oils 2-3 Sweets 5/ week

  18. DASH: Dietary Recommendations DASH meets multiple dietary recommendations • NIH-NHLBI-ATP III • AHA • USDA/DHHS Dietary Guidelines • NCI and AICR • Surgeon General Recommendations

  19. Dietary recommendations includesTherapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC) • Saturated fat: 7% of total calories • Cholesterol: < 200 mg/day • Weight reduction • Increased physical activity • Viscous (soluble) fiber: 10-25 g/day • Plant stanols/sterols: 2 g/day

  20. Take Time for Some TLC • Choose foods low in saturated fat • Whole grains • Fruits • Vegetables • Fat free or 1% dairy products • Lean meats, fish, skinless poultry • Dried peas/beans

  21. Take Time for Some TLC (cont) • Choose foods low in cholesterol • Plant-based foods • Grains • Fruits • Vegetables • Dried beans

  22. Easily implemented suggestions: • Make connections between dietary practices and health concerns very concrete, address options for reducing sodium • De-emphasize the “low-income” designation of the audience for whom the program is intended • Encourage participants to attend classes in “teams” to support each other • Emphasize food demonstrations • Encourage participants to visit supermarkets, read labels or conduct an informal survey of friends or family

  23. Rutgers Cooperative Extension Programs • Encourage participation in Rutgers Essex County’s Cooperative Extension’s: • Food Stamp Nutrition Education Program (FSNEP) • Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) • Thank you • Morgan@rce.rutgers.edu