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SKELETAL SYSTEM. Functions of the Skeletal System. Bones are made of OSSEOUS TISSUE Support and Protection Body movement Blood cell formation (bone marrow) - hemopo ie sis Storage of inorganic materials                     (salt, calcium, potassium….). ORGANIZATION. About 206 bones

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functions of the skeletal system
Functions of the Skeletal System

Bones are made of OSSEOUS TISSUE

Support and Protection

Body movement

Blood cell formation (bone marrow) - hemopoiesis

Storage of inorganic materials                    (salt, calcium, potassium….)

organization
ORGANIZATION

About 206 bones

2 Main Divisions – Axial & Appendicular

axial skeleton
Axial Skeleton

Head, neck, trunk

Skull

Hyoid Bone

Vertebral Column

Thoracic Cage (ribs, 12 pairs)

Sternum

appendicular skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton
  • Limbs & Bones that connect to the
    • Pectoral Girdle (shoulders)
    • Pelvic Girdle (hips)
bone structure long bone
BONE STRUCTURE - Long Bone
  • Epiphysis
  • Diaphysis
  • Articular Cartilage
  • Periosteum
inside the long bone
Inside the Long Bone

Medullary Cavity – hollow chamber filled with bone marrow

Red Marrow (blood)

Yellow Marrow (fat)

Endosteum

– lining of the medullary

types of bone tissue
Types of Bone Tissue

Compact (wall of the diaphysis)

Spongy (cancellous, epiphysis) - red marrow

slide11

* Assignment

– Coloring of a Long Bone

slide12

Review the Structure of a Long Bone

Matching quiz at http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/ap/holehaap/student/olc2/chap07matching01.html

microscopic structure
Microscopic Structure

MATRIX - where the bone cells live

OSTEOCYTES  - mature bone cells, enclosed in tiny chambers called LACUNAE

OSTEOCYTES form rings (LAMELLAE) around a HAVERSIAN CANAL which houses blood vessels

Osteocytes are linked by CANALICULI

Haversian Canals are linked by VOLKMAN's CANALS

compact bone
Compact Bone

BONE COLORING!

slide15

Test Yourself

Find the...

Haversian Canal

Volkman's Canal

Lamellae

Spongy Bone

Compact Bone

bone development growth
BONE DEVELOPMENT & GROWTH
  • Intramembranous bones – flat, skull
  •  Endochondral bones – all other

ALL BONES START AS HYALINE CARTILAGE, areas graduallly turn to bone

PRIMARY OSSIFICATION CENTER (shaft)

SECONDARY OSSIFICATION CENTER (ends)

bone development growth1
Bone Development & Growth

EPIPHYSEAL DISK  (growth plate) is a band of cartilage between the epiphysis and diaphysis

These areas increase bone length as the cells ossify

Cartilage becomes OSTEOBLASTS become OSTEOCYTES

resorption
RESORPTION

OSTEOCLASTS - dissolve bone tissue to release minerals,  process is called RESORPTION

bone growth1
Bone Growth

* Assignment - Coloring of the Aging Hand

types of joints articulations
Types of Joints (articulations)
  • Synarthrotic (not moveable, aka sutures)
  • Amphiarthrotic (slightly moveable, vertebrae)
  • Diarthrotic (moveable joint, aka synovial joints)
slide23

Synovial fluid - fluid within the joints that helps to lubricate

Types of Joints

1.  Ball and Socket

2.  Hinge

3.  Pivot

4.  Saddle

bones of the skull
BONES OF THE SKULL

1. Frontal -2. Parietal - 3. Occipital -4. Temporal - 5. Sphenoid - 6. Maxilla - 7. Mandible -

8. Zygomatic -

topography of the skull
TOPOGRAPHY OF THE SKULL

Foramen - refers to any tiny opening, nerves and blood vessels leave this opening to supply the face

Mental Foramen

slide26
Suture - refers to any connection between large bones (in fetal skulls, these are called fontanels)

Fissure - any wide gap between bones

sutures
Sutures

1. Coronal - between frontal and parietal bones2. Lambdoidal - between occipital and parietal bones3. Squamosal - between temporal and parietal bones4. Sagittal - between parietal bones

foramen magnum
Foramen Magnum

* Assignment: Skull Labeling

vertebrae
Vertebrae

Neck = cervical

Middle Back = thoracic

Lower Back = lumbar

bones of the arm
Bones of the Arm

Ulna goes to pinky  (P-U)

Radius goes to thumb

wrist bones
Wrist Bones

For test

Carpels

Metacarpals

Phalanges

*extra credit opportunity

bones of the ankle
Bones of the Ankle

For Test

Calcaneous

Tarsals

Metatarsals

Phalanges

Assignment – Skeleton Labeling

upcoming assignments
Upcoming Assignments
  • The Skeleton Mystery - read about a “crime scene” and reconstruct skeletons to identify the remains
  • Watch a Bones Episode
  • Identify Bones on a real skeleton • Lab Practical Test
  • Medical Imaging – learn how doctors view bones and diagnose problems
test information
TEST INFORMATION
  • Test will cover everything in your notes and on the slides presented in class
  • Visit biologycorner.com for study aids
  • A second test will occur that covers the lab portion
abnormal bone conditions
Abnormal Bone Conditions

BONE SPURS: abnormal growth. Can occur on any bone (e.g. heel).

OSTEOPOROSIS: Increased activity of osteoclasts cause a break down bone, and the subsequent fewer minerals in the extracellular matrix make it fragile. The spongy bone especially becomes more porous.

Men get it as well as women. What’s the best way to prevent osteoporosis? Exercise! What does exercise do? Makes bones bigger.

The most common bone used for a bone graft is the iliac bone of the hip.

osteoporosis
Osteoporosis

Figure 6.15

rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease which causes joint stiffness and bone deformity
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease which causes joint stiffness and bone deformity

Source: http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/public/article3233439.ece

abnormalities of the spine
ABNORMALITIES OF THE SPINE

ABNORMALITIES OF THE SPINE

SCOLIOSIS is a lateral curve in the spine

KYPHOSIS is a hunchback curve

LORDOSIS is a swayback in the lower region.

ANKYLOSIS is severe arthritis in the spine and the vertebrae fuse.

slide59
FUN FACTS ABOUT BONESBone is made of the same type of minerals as limestone.

Babies are born with 300 bones, but by adulthood we have only 206 in our bodies.

The giraffe has the same number of bones in its neck as a human: seven in total.

The long horned ram can take a head butt at 25 mph. The human skull will fracture at 5mph.