Skeletal System. Introduction. The framework of bones and cartilage that protects our organs and allows us to move is called the skeletal system.
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There are five principal types of bones based on shape
1. Long bones (e.g. thighs, legs, toes, arms, forearms, and fingers)
AP is the reference position used to describe the location of anatomical parts and to describe and explain human movement.
The subject is:
Note: the midline is an imaginary vertical line that divides the body into equal left and right sides
Superior: nearer the head
Inferior: farther away from the head
Anterior (ventral): nearer to or in front of the body
Posterior (dorsal): nearer to or at the back of the body
Medial: closer to the midline of the body
Lateral: farther away from the midline of the body
Proximal: nearer to the attachment of an extremity (limb) to
Distal: farther from the attachment of an extremity (limb) to the
Superficial: on or near the surface of the body
Deep: farther away from the surface of the body
A plane of motion can be defined as the two dimensional space cut by a moving body or the plane along which movements occur. There are generally three planes used to describe segmental and body movements in physical activity. These are:
An axis is the point about which rotation of a body or of a body segment occurs. There are three axes of rotation. Each axis is associated with a plane of motion and the axis is perpendicular to that plane.
Horizontal axis (…think East and West)
Antereoposterior axis (axis)
Longitudinal axis (…think North and South pole)
Movements in the sagittal plane around a horizontal axis
Movements in the frontal plane around a antereoposterior axis
Movements in the transverse plane around a longitudinal axis
Internal (medial) rotation
External (lateral) rotation