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SKELETAL SYSTEM
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  1. Chapter 6 SKELETAL SYSTEM

  2. FUNCTIONS • Supports body structure and provides shape to the body • Protects internal organs • Allows movement and anchorage of muscles • Provides mineral storage • Allows hemopoiesis © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  3. STRUCTURE AND FORMATION OF BONE • Bones consist of microscopic cells called osteocytes • Ossification is the process where mineral matter starts to replace cartilage, creating bone © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  4. STRUCTURE OF LONG BONE • Diaphysis is the long, hollow cylinder of hard, compact bone • At each end of the diaphysis is an epiphysis • The medullary canal in the center, is filled with marrow, and is surrounded by compact or hard bones © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  5. STRUCTURE OF LONG BONE © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  6. STRUTURE OF LONG BONE • The endosteum is the lining of the marrow canal that keeps the cavity intact • Periosteum, a tough, fibrous tissue containing blood vessels, lymph nodes and nerves covers the outside © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  7. GROWTH • Bones grow in length and ossify from the center toward the extremities • Osteoblasts are bone cells that deposit new bone • Osteoclasts are bone cells that secrete enzymes to dissolve bone structure © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  8. BONE TYPES • Four types of bones are: • Long bones - upper and lower arms and legs • Flat bones - skull and ribs • Irregular bones - spinal column • Short bones - wrists and ankles © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  9. PARTS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM • Axial Skeleton consists of: • Skull • Spinal column • Ribs • Sternum (breast bone) • Hyoid bone © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  10. Appendicular Skeleton Shoulder Girdle Arm Hand Pelvic Girdle Upper Leg Lower Leg Ankle Foot PARTS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  11. PARTS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  12. JOINTS AND RELATED STRUCTURES • Diarthroses (movable) joints • Ball-and-socket joints • Hinge joints • Pivot joints • Gliding joints • Amphiarthroses (partially movable) joints • Synarthroses (immovable) joints © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  13. JOINTS AND RELATED STRUCTURES © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  14. TYPES OF MOTION • Flexion • Extension • Abduction • Adduction • Circumduction • Rotation • Pronation © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  15. DISORDERS OF THE BONES AND JOINTS • Fracture • Greenstick • Closed/simple • Open/compound • Comminuted • Dislocation • Sprain © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  16. DISORDERS OF THE BONES AND JOINTS © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  17. DISEASES OF THE BONES • Arthritis: • Rheumatoid, Osteoarthritis • Gout • Rickets • Slipped (herniated) disk • Whiplash injury • Abnormal curvatures of the spine © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  18. OTHER MEDICALLY RELATED DISORDERS • Osteoporosis • Osteomyelitis • Osteosarcoma © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.