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We all know beautiful GRACE. SKELETAL SYSTEM. By: Michael Head Felicia Vieira Hailey O’Dell. Biomed p. 7 Mr. Koger April 30, 2012. There ARE major parts to making up the skeletal system which help it work, function & exist. .

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skeletal system

We all know beautiful GRACE..

SKELETAL SYSTEM

By:

Michael Head

Felicia Vieira

Hailey O’Dell

Biomed p. 7

Mr. Koger

April 30, 2012

slide2

There ARE major parts to making up the skeletal system which help it work, function & exist.

  • The skeleton is a framework of 206 bones that protect the body's organs and provide support and attachment for muscles; this enables movement throughout the body.
  • Bones making up the human skeleton are located inside the body; the skeleton is called an endoskeleton.
function
FUNCTION
  • Support

The other 80 percent of our body is made up of soft tissue organs and muscles, all of which need to be supported. The skeletal system provides this support. Through connective tissues, all organs are attached either directly or indirectly to the skeletal system.

The large bones of our lower bodies support the trunk when we stand. The skeletal system as a whole provides the necessary framework for humans to stand upright.

  • Protection

Protecting those soft tissue organs is another major role for the human skeletal system. The brain is protected by fused bones that make up the skull, the spinal cord is surrounded by vertebrae that protect it and the rib cage provides protection to the heart, lungs and other nearby organs.

  • Movement

The body is designed to move with a series of mechanical levers. Bones provide those levers and the joints between bones act as pivot points. As muscles contract and relax, the bones of the human skeletal system move allowing us to reach, walk, run, climb, sit, stoop and bend.

  • Red Blood Cells

Known as hematopoiesis, bone marrow makes up most of the red blood cells required by the human body and some of the white blood cells as well. Marrow is a network of soft connective material that fills the cavities of bones.

The process of hematopoiesis is carried on by the marrow in the skeletal system on a continuous basis depending on the needs of the body at any given time.

  • Mineral Storage

The human skeletal system contains more calcium than any other organ in the entire body. Bones store calcium for times when blood calcium levels are increased or normal. They inject the blood with calcium during times when calcium levels are decreased. Like hematopoiesis, this is a continuous process.

major organs
MAJOR ORGANS

EPIPHYSIS

1. the end of a long bone, usually wider than the shaft, and either entirely cartilaginous or separated from the shaft by a cartilaginous disk.

2. part of a bone formed from a secondary center of ossification, commonly found at the ends of long bones, on the margins of flat bones, and at tubercles and processes; during the period of growth epiphyses are separated from the main portion of the bone by cartilage.

  • -Bones are a major organ of the skeletal system; their purpose is to protect and support the function of other organs in the body. Bones store minerals and provide blood protection while producing red and white blood cells.
  • Bones..

DIAPHYSIS

1. the shaft of a long bone, between the epiphyses.

2. the portion of the long bone formed from a primary center of ossification.

slide5

Bone Cells

  • -Osteocyte.. bone cell; a mature osteoblast that has become embedded in the bone matrix. It occupies a small cavity and sends out protoplasmic projections that anastomose with those of other osteocytes to form a system of minute canals within the bone matrix.
  • Spongy Bone
  • -Bone in which the spicules form a latticework, with interstices filled with embryonic connective tissue or bone marrow; hard, rigid form of connective tissue constituting most of the skeleton of vertebrates, composed chiefly of calcium salts
  • Compact Bone
  • -lamellar bone; the normal type of adult bone, organized in layers (lamellae), which may be parallel (cancellous b.) or concentrically arranged
slide6
Bone Marrow

-A substance found in the cavities of bones, especially the long bones and the sternum (breast bone). The bone marrow contains those cells that are responsible for the production of the blood cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets); soft, fatty, vascular tissue filling the cavities of bones, having a stroma of reticular fibers and cells.

-Red Marrow

-Etymology.. the red vascular substance consisting of connective tissue and blood vessels containing primitive blood cells, macrophages, megakaryocytes, and fat cells. It is found in the cavities of many bones, including flat and short bones, bodies of the vertebrae, sternum, ribs, and articulating ends of long bones. Red marrow manufactures and releases leukocytes, erythrocytes, and thrombocytes into the bloodstream.

-Yellow Marrow

-bone marrow in which the fat cells predominate in the meshes of the reticular network

accessory organs
ACCESSORY ORGANS
  • Nerves

-Is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (the long, slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system. They provide a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses that are transmitted along each of the axons.

  • Muscles

-an organ which by contraction produces movement of an animal organism.

slide9

Common Terms within the Skeletal System

  • Skeletal Structure
    • The skeletal structure is divided into two groups named the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton consists of 80 bones which include the head and trunk of the human body. The appendicular skeleton is composed of over 126 bones in the lower region of the body.
  • Cartilage
    • Cartilage is a connective tissue that is composed of important cells and fibers; it's located throughout the body. Cartilage is an important organ in the skeletal system. It supports the structure of many body parts and functions like the bones, ribs, ears and nose.
  • Tendons
    • A tendon is a skeletal organ that provides adhesive strength as it connects muscle to bone. Tendons withstand pressure and tension; they work collectively with muscles to enable rigorous movement.
  • Ligaments
    • Ligaments are organs that connect bone-to-bone in the skeletal system. They are fibrous tissues that provide stability to joints throughout the body during rest and active movement.
diseases involved with the skeletal system
Leukemia

The cause of most human leukemia is unknown. It is a kind of cancer in which abnormal white blood cells multiply in an uncontrolled manner. they interfere with the production of normal white blood cells. Leukemia affects the production of red blood cells.

Bursitis

Bursitis is a disorder that causes pain in the body's joints. It most commonly affects the shoulder and hip joints. It is caused by an inflammation of the bursa, small fluid-filled bags that act as lubricating surfaces for muscles to move over bones. This inflammation usually results from overactivity of an arm or leg.

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a disease resulting in the loss of bone tissue. In osteoporosis, the cancellous bone loses calcium, becomes thinner, and may disappear altogether.

Sprains

A sprain is an injury to a ligament or to the tissue that covers a joint. Most sprains result from a sudden wrench that stretches or tears the tissues of the ligaments. A sprain is usually extremely painful. The injured part often swells and turns black and blue.

Fractures

A fracture is a broken bone. These are some common kinds of fractures:

Spina bifida

Its a spinal defect that is present at birth. In spina bifida, the spinal cord does not form properly and the vertebrae and skin cannot form around it. Spina bifida results from an error in the development of the embryo that occurs about a month after a woman becomes pregnant. This error may have various causes, including the use of alcohol or certain medications by the pregnant woman or exposure to extreme heat. Genetic factors appear to be very important.

Diseases involved with the Skeletal System
slide11
Arthritis

There are more than 100 diseases of the joints referred to as arthritis. Victims of arthritis suffer pain, stiffness, and swelling in their joints.

Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative joint disease, occurs when a joint wears out. Many elderly people have osteoarthritis, and the disease may also occur if a joint has been injured many times. The joints most frequently affected are those of the hands, hips, knees, lower back, and neck.

Scoliosis

Scoliosis is a side-to-side curve of the spine. This condition becomes apparent during adolescence. It is unknown why Scoliosis affects more girls than boys.

Talipes equinovarus

Talipes equinovarus, often called clubfoot is an abnormal condition of the foot, usually present at birth. The foot is bent downward and inward so that the person can walk only on the toes and on the outside of the foot. Sometimes the foot is bent upward and outward so that the person can use only the heel for walking.

Tendinitis

Tendinitis is a disorder involving stiffness or pain in the muscles or joints. It is often called rheumatism.

Kyphosis

Kyphosis, also called hunchback is a forward bending of the spine. Kyphosis is caused by any condition that deforms the bones of the upper part of the spine so that the person is bent forward. Diseases that cause kyphosis include tuberculosis, syphilis, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Poliomyelitis

Poliomyelitis, also called polio, is a serious infection caused by a virus. A polio virus may attack the nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord, causing paralysis. Some patients show only mild symptoms, such as fever, headache, sore throat, and vomiting. Symptoms may disappear after about a day.

Scurvy

Its a disease caused by lack of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in the diet. If a person does not get enough vitamin C, any wound he or she might have heals poorly. The person also bruises easily. The mouth and gums become sore. The gums bleed, and the teeth may become loose. Patients lose their appetite, their joints become sore, and they become restless.

level of organization
cells → tissues → organs → organ systems → organism

bone cells (osteoblasts) → connective (bone) tissue → bones → skeletal system→ vertebrate

Level of Organization
slide13
The end..

By :

Felicia

Mike

Hailey