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Chapter 3

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Chapter 3

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  1. ChapterOutline Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Chapter 3 Nutrition for Wellness

  2. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Key terms • Nutrition: Science that studies the relationship of foods to optimal health and performance • Nutrients: Substances found in food that provide energy, regulate metabolism, and help with growth and repair of body tissues

  3. Figure 3.7 Calories per gram of food

  4. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Carbohydrate • Major source of energy (4 calories/gram) • Regulate digestion, fat, and protein metabolism • Two types: • Simple • Complex

  5. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Simple carbohydrates • Formed by simple or double sugar units with little nutritive value • Divided into monosaccharides and disaccharides

  6. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Complex carbohydrates • Carbohydrates formed by three or more simple sugar molecules linked together • Also referred to as “polysaccharides”

  7. Figure 3.2

  8. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Fiber • Complex carbohydrate in plant foods that cannot be digested by the human body but is essential in the digestion process • Present mainly in skins, leaves, roots, and seeds • Dietary sources include • Whole grain cereals and breads • Fruits and vegetables • Legumes

  9. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Fiber • Lack of fiber has been linked to • Cardiovascular disease • Cancer • Constipation • Diverticulitis • Hemorrhoids • Gallbladder disease • Obesity

  10. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Recommended amount of fiber • Under age 50 • Women = 25 gr/day • Men = 38 gr/day • Over age 50 • Women = 21 gr/day • Men = 30 gr/day • Current average daily U.S. intake • About 15 gr/day

  11. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Fiber • Two types • Soluble fiber • Dissolves in water to form gel-like substance that encloses food particles • Helps decrease blood cholesterol and blood sugar • Insoluble fiber • Not easily dissolved in water but binds with water • Causes a softer and bulkier stool

  12. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Fat • Source of energy (9 calories/gram) • Stored energy • Part of cell structure • Insulator for body heat preservation • Shock absorption • Carries fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K)

  13. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Types of fat • Simple fats • Saturated • Monounsaturated • Polyunsaturated • Compound fats • Phospholipids • Glucolipids • Lipoproteins • Derived fats • Sterols (cholesterol)

  14. Major types of fat Figure 3.3

  15. Figure 3.4 Chemical structure of saturated and unsaturated fats

  16. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Key terms • Transfatty acid: Solidified fat formed by adding hydrogen to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats to increase shelf life Omega-3 fatty acids: Polyunsaturated fatty acids found primarily in cold-water seafood and flaxseeds thought to lower blood cholesterol and triglycerides Omega-6 fatty acids: Polyunsaturated fatty acids found primarily in corn and sunflower oils and most oils in processed foods

  17. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Protein • Source of energy (4 calories/gram) • Builds and repairs tissue • Part of hormones, enzymes, and antibodies • Helps maintain normal fluid balance

  18. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Vitamins and minerals • Vitamins • Organic substances essential for normal metabolism, growth, and development • Fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K) • Water-soluble (B complex and C)

  19. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Vitamins and minerals • Minerals • Inorganic elements essential for normal body functions • Part of all cells and enzymes • Help maintain water and acid-base balance • Regulate muscle and nervous tissue excitability

  20. Figure 3.5 Approximate proportions of nutrients in the human body

  21. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition “ Balancing the diet What you eat may be leading you to an early grave.”

  22. Figure 3.1 Fats, Oils, and Sweets USE SPARINGLY Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, and Nuts Group 2–3 SERVINGS Milk,Yogurt, and Cheese Group 2–3 SERVINGS Fruit Group 2–4 SERVINGS Vegetable Group 3–5 SERVINGS Bread, Cereal, Rice, and Pasta Group 6–11 SERVINGS

  23. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition To decrease risk for chronic diseases • Let the Food Guide Pyramid guide your food choices • Eat a variety of foods daily, especially foods high in nutrients, starch, and fiber • Whole grains • Fruits and vegetables • Avoid too much fat, saturated fat, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol • Avoid too much sugar and sodium

  24. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition To decrease risk for chronic diseases • Maintain adequate calcium intake • Keep food safe to eat—with little risk of food-borne illness • Maintain recommended body weight • Drink alcoholic beverages in moderation,if at all

  25. Table 3.5

  26. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Key terms Estimated Average Requirements (EAR): The amount of a nutrient that meets the dietary needs in half the people in the U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA): The daily amount of a nutrient (statistically determined from the EARs) considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of almost 98% of all healthy peoplein the U.S. • Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): A general term that describes four types of nutrient standards that establish adequate amounts and maximum safe nutrient intakes in the diet; These standards are • Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) • Adequate Intakes (AI) • Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)

  27. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Key terms • Adequate Intakes (AI): The recommended amount of a nutrient intake when sufficient evidence is not available to calculate the EAR and subsequent RDA Upper Intake Level (UL): The highest level of nutrient intake that appears safe for most healthy people, beyond which exists an increased risk of adverse effects Daily Values (DVs): Reference values for nutrients and food components used in food labels

  28. Figure 3.6 Daily values (DVs) • Reference values for nutrients and food components for use on food labels • Include as percentage of total calories: fat, saturated fat, and carbohydrates • Include cholesterol, sodium, and potassium in milligrams • Include fiber and protein in grams

  29. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Critical thinking • What do the nutrition standards mean to you? • How much of a challenge would it be to apply those standards in your daily life?

  30. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Nutrient analysis • First step in evaluating the diet • Most people do not realize how harmful and non-nutritious many common foods are

  31. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Nutrient analysis • Analysis coverscalories, carbohydrates, fats, cholesterol, and sodium • Also covers eight crucial nutrients: protein, calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C • If the regular diet has enough of these eight nutrients, foods consumed in natural form typically contain all the other nutrients needed

  32. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Nutrient analysis • Most revealing information learned in a nutrient analysis is the source of fat intake • Average daily fat consumption in the U.S. diet • About 37% of the total caloric intake • Much of it from saturated fat and trans fatty acids, which increase the risk for chronic diseases

  33. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Calories in fast food Wendy’s Frosty, med. Tuna Sweet Onion Teriyaki Veggie Del. Market Fresh Roast Beef Roast Chicken Club Regular Roast Beef Ice Cream Shake, med. Double Whopper Whopper w/ Cheese Whopper Large Fries Chicken McGrill Big Mac Subway Arby’s Burger King McDonald's

  34. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Fat content in fast food

  35. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Grains, vegetables, & fruits • Provide nutritional base for a healthy diet • Daily fruits and vegetables should include • One good source of pro-vitamin A or carotene (apricots, cantaloupe, broccoli, carrots, pumpkin, dark leafy vegetables) • One good source of vitamin C (citrus fruit, kiwi fruit, cantaloupe, strawberries, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, green pepper) • The recommended 5 to 9 servings of fruits and vegetables daily has no substitute

  36. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Phytochemicals • Fruits and vegetables are the sole source of phytochemicals • Show promising results in the fight against cancer • Their actions are so diverse that, at almost every stage of cancer, they can block, disrupt, slow down, or even reverse the process

  37. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Mediterranean diet • Mediterraneans have lower rates of diet-linked diseases and a longer life expectancy • Although a semivegetarian diet, up to 40% of the daily caloric intake comes from fat: mostly monounsaturated fat from olive oil

  38. Figure 3.11 The Mediterranean diet is more than just a “diet”: it is a dietary pattern that has existed for centuries

  39. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Ethnic diets • Are healthier than the typical American diet • Emphasize consumption of complex carbohydrates • Limit fat intake • Become unhealthy when “Americanized”

  40. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Critical thinking • Do you take supplements? • If so, for what purposes are you taking them—and do you feel that you could restructure your diet so that you could do without them?

  41. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Nutrient supplements • Half of all adults in U.S. take daily nutrient supplements • Nutrient requirements for body normally can be met by consuming 1,200 calories per day, as long as the diet contains the recommended servings from the five food groups

  42. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Nutrient supplements • Water-soluble vitamins: The body cannot retain these vitamins as long as fat-soluble vitamins; excessive intake is excreted • Small amounts, however, can be retained for weeks or months • Fat-soluble vitamins: stored in fatty tissue; daily intake of these vitamins is not as crucial • Too much vitamin A and vitamin D can be detrimental

  43. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Nutrient supplements • Do not take megadoses of a supplement(s) • For some nutrients, a dose of five times the RDA taken over several months may create problems • Vitamin and mineral doses should not exceed ULs • For nutrients that do not have an UL, no dosage higher than three times the RDA should be taken

  44. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Antioxidants • Much research is being done on antioxidants for thwarting chronic diseases • Although there are over 4,000 antioxidants, the four most studied are • Vitamin C • Vitamin E • Beta-carotene (a precursor to vitamin A) • Selenium

  45. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Antioxidants • Oxygen is used to change carbohydrates and fats into energy • A small amount of oxygen ends up in an unstable form, referred to as oxygen freeradicals • A free radical molecule has a normal proton nucleus with a single unpaired electron (makes it extremely reactive)

  46. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Antioxidants • Free radicals attack and damage proteins and lipids • Damage is thought to contribute to the development of • Cardiovascular disease, cancer, emphysema, cataracts, Parkinson's disease, premature aging • Free radical formation is enhanced by • Solar radiation, cigarette smoke, air pollution, radiation, some drugs, injury or infection, chemicals (such as pesticides), and other environmental factors • Antioxidants offer protection by absorbing free radicals

  47. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Antioxidants • When free radicals are produced faster than the body can neutralize them, they cause damage • Antioxidants are found abundantly in food, especially in fruits and vegetables • Only 9% of Americans eat the minimum five daily servings of fruits and vegetables

  48. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Antioxidants • Some authors/researchers believe antioxidant supplements further prevent free radical damage • The University of California at Berkeley Wellness Letter recommends the following daily supplements: • 250 to 500 mg of vitamin C • 200 to 400 IU vitamin E (natural vitamin E)

  49. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Antioxidants • Vitamin C: Consuming 5 or more daily servings of fruits and vegetables will provide the recommended amount • Vitamin E: Obtaining the recommended daily amount of vitamin E through diet alone is practically impossible

  50. Nutrients Balancing the Diet Achieving a Balanced Diet Nutrient Supplementation Energy (ATP) Production Nutrition for Athletes Special Nutrient Needs of Women Dietary Guidelines for Americans Proper Nutrition Vitamin C • Water-soluble • Body eliminates it in about 12 hours • Consume vitamin C-rich foods twice a day ordivide the vitamin C supplement in half and take twice daily • Offers benefits against heart disease, cancer,cataracts, and several other health disorders • Consume between 250 and 500 mg daily