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Basics of power electronics and electric motors for hybrid and electric vehicles. D.Sc . Tatiana Minav. Teaching practice. 5.01.2014. Tatiana Minav. Behind theory is practice!. Expectations? . wishes? ideas? suggestions? Recommendations?. Goals/Targets. Understand concept L osses

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Basics of power electronics and electric motors for hybrid and electric vehicles

Basics of power electronics and electric motors for hybrid and electric vehicles

D.Sc. Tatiana Minav

Teaching practice

5.01.2014

Tatiana Minav



Expectations
Expectations?

wishes?

ideas?

suggestions?

Recommendations?

Tatiana Minav


Goals targets
Goals/Targets

  • Understandconcept

  • Losses

  • TIER

  • Trends

  • Vehicle classification

  • Ways to improve efficiency

  • Fuel consumption

  • Electric machines types

  • Frequency converters

Tatiana Minav




Trends
Trends

  • Moremobility - electromobility

  • Highdemand for hybrids

  • Demand for cleanenergy

  • TIER 4 -11 % and <TIER 3 -89 %

  • Fuelquality is low in most of the world

  • Increasemachineefficiency

  • Increaseprocessefficiency

  • Increaseoperatorefficiency

  • Increase life time of Non-road mobile machinery(NRMM)

  • Lowerfuelconsumption

  • Trend to go to highersystemcomplexity

  • System developing and software domination

Tatiana Minav


Common industry wishes
Common industrywishes

  • Avoidingpartialload

  • Increasingproductivity

  • Integration

  • Acceptablereturn of investment

  • Reducelosses

Tatiana Minav



Hex market
HEX market

Tatiana Minav




What kind of losses in car discussion
Whatkind of losses in car?/ discussion

  • Engine losses

  • Heat losses

  • Mechanical losses(air firction, etc.)

  • Auxillary power consumption (air-conditioning, power steering,etc…)

    Do you know that ?

    Total efficiency of an engine is around 20-30 %.

    How to improve the efficiency?

  • reduce losses

  • optimize the shape

  • or change topology

Tatiana Minav


Engine efficiency
Engine efficiency

  • The engine is now in on/off- operation and is only in operation during 11% of the cycle.

  • The other 89%, the engine is switched off, thereby completely eliminating idle losses.

Tatiana Minav


Vehicle classification
Vehicleclassification

Tatiana Minav


Can we make some changes to convert conventional car to ev
Canwemakesomechanges to convertconventionalcar to EV?

?

Primemover

Engine

?

Energy storage

Bensin/Gasolin

Tatiana Minav


Game discussion in groups 2 3 pers make your own ev topology for conventional car
GAME-discussion in groups (2-3 pers.) makeyourown EV topology for conventionalcar

  • 5-10 minutes

Tatiana Minav


Motor drive system topologies
Motor Drive System Topologies

  • Central drive

  • Single wheel 2WD drive

  • Single Wheel 4WD drive

  • Final drive 4WD

  • Wheel (hub) drive 4WD

Wheel hub drive

Tatiana Minav


Advantages of a electric motor in hybrid driveline
Advantages of a electric motor in hybrid driveline

Engine + motor = allows:

  • Smaller engine => less pollution

  • Blue motion => reduce engine idling when stopped

  • The vehicle uses regenerative braking and the internal combustion engine to charge the energy storage

  • Electric motor used as a generator and storing the captured energy in the battery.

  • Extra power during acceleration

Tatiana Minav



Why electric machines em
Why Electric Machines (EM)?

  • Torque-speed characteristics of EM

    • High torque at low speeds

      • constant torque region

    • High maximum speed


Why electric machines em1
Why Electric Machines (EM)?

  • Efficiency of Electric Machines

    • Up to 95 %

  • Efficiency of Internal combustion engines

    • Gasoline up to 30 %

    • Diesel up to 40 %


Why electric machines em2
Why Electric Machines (EM)?

  • High efficiency in wide operation area

  • Torque-speed characteristics

  • Fast and accurate control

  • Motor and generator operation modes

    • Regenerative braking

  • Powertrainconfiguration

    • Amount of tractionmotors

  • Challenges

    • Cost -> Manufacturing

    • Size, cooling, etc ?

    • Electricity source ?



Regenerative braking
Regenerativebraking

  • Potentialfor ~30% energysavings


Potential and kinetic energy recovery in vehicles
Potential and kineticenergyrecovery in vehicles

Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS), technology that was introduced to the sport in 2009 and was a mainstay from 2011.

http://www.formula1.com/inside_f1/understanding_the_sport/8763.html

http://www.toyota-industries.com/csr/environment/product/eco5_9.html

Tatiana Minav


Group work select of ev topology depends on application
Group work! Select of EV Topologydepends on application:

group1: sport car ( example Ferrari)

group 2: familycar(example Volvo)

group 3: smallcar(example Fiat)

group 4: truck (kuorma-auto)

group 5: Bus

group 6: non-roadmobile machine – tractor

group 7: non-road mobile machine– mineloader


Group 1 sport car
Group 1: sportcar

  • what?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Group 2 family car
Group 2: familycar

  • what?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Group 3 small car
Group 3: smallcar

  • what?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Group 4 truck
Group 4: truck

  • what?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Group 5 bus
group 5: Bus

  • what?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Group 6 tractor
group 6:Tractor

  • what?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Group 7 m ineloader
group 7: Mineloader

  • what?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Electric machines em
Electric Machines (EM)

  • DC Machines

  • Induction Machines

  • Permanent Magnet Machines

  • Switched Reluctance Machines


Dc machine
DC Machine

  • Widely used and simple electric motor

  • Technologically mature and simple to control

Operation principle:

F = BIL

T = BIL cos α


Animation dc motor
Animation-DC motor

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gzca2CbZ6EM

  • All motors:

    http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au//jw/electricmotors.html

Tatiana Minav


Properties of dc machine
Properties of DC Machine

  • Traditionallyused in tractionapplications

    • Trains, trams, electriccars

  • Onlyfullycontrollable EM beforepowerelectronics ~70’s

  • Phased out (in big powerlevels) due to wear of commutator

    • Commutator and slipringbrushesconnectsmagnetizationcircuit to rotorcoils

      • Increasesneed of maintenance

  • Lowefficiencycompared to otherelectricmachines


Induction machine im
Induction Machine (IM)

  • The most common

  • In tractionapplicationsusually”squirrel-cage”

  • Magnetization current is fed by an inverter

  • Slip (asynchronous machine)

  • Simple and robust


Animation
Animation

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LtJoJBUSe28


Characteristics of induction machine
Characteristics of Induction Machine

Benefits

  • Reliable and robust

  • Low maintenance, low cost and capability to operate in extreme conditions

  • The most mature technology of AC machines

    Drawbacks

  • Highloss=> relativelylowefficiency

  • Lowpowerfactor

  • Lowinverterusingfactor (overdimensionedinverter)

  • Losses in rotor (coolingproblem in mobile applications)



Permanent magnet machines pm
Permanentmagnetmachines (PM)

  • Permanentmagnetrotor

    • Axialfluxrotor ------ >

    • Radialfluxrotor


Animation1
Animation

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H97HpwZNqZI

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZAY5JInyHXY

Tatiana Minav


Permanent magnet rotor configuration affects to t w characteristics
Permanent-MagnetRotorConfigurationAffects to T-wCharacteristics

  • PRM Permanent-MagnetAssistedReluctanceSynchronousMachine

  • RM VariableReluctance Machine

  • SPM SurfacePermanent-MagnetSynchronous Machine

  • IPM InteriorPermanent-MagnetSynchronous Machine

  • MR-PM Magnetic-ringPermanent-Magnet Machine

M. Arata, N. Takahashi, K. Sakai, K. Hagiwara, T. Araki, Large Torque and High Efficiency Permanent Magnet Reluctance Motor for A Hybrid Truck, EVS-22 Yokohama Japan, 2006


Characteristics of permanent magnet machines
Characteristics of PermanentMagnet Machines

  • Advantages:

    • Higherefficiencythan in asynchronousmachine

    • Smallerapparentpower rating for inverter

    • Smaller and lighter design

  • Disadvantages

    • Moreexpensivethanasynchronousorswitchedreluctancemachines

    • Magneticmaterial & manufacturingtechnique

  • Torque is producedby

    • Permanentmagnets

    • Reluctance


Switched reluctance machine srm
Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM)

  • Wide speed operation area

    wmax = 6 to 8 times wnom

  • Different power stage topology as in other electric

  • Simple and robust

  • Iron core and air resistance losses in the rotor machines

R. Krishnan, Switched reluctance motor Drives; Modeling, Simulation, Analysis, Design, and Applications, CRC Press, London, 2001


Animation2
Animation

  • http://www.freescale.com/webapp/sps/site/overview.jsp?code=WBT_MOTORSRTUT_WP

  • A switched reluctance motor does not contain any permanent magnets.

  • The stator is similar to a brushless dc motor.

  • The rotor consists only of iron laminates.

  • The iron rotor is attracted to the energized stator pole. The polarity of the stator pole does not matter.

  • Torque is produced as a result of the attraction between the electromagnet and the iron rotor.

Tatiana Minav


Characteristics of the switched reluctance machine
Characteristics of the Switched Reluctance Machine

  • Benefits

    • Simple and ruggedstructure

    • Fault-tolerantoperation

    • Simplecontrol

    • Verygoodtorque-speedcharacteristics

  • Drawbacks

    • Acousticnoise

    • Torque and currentripple

    • Specialconvertertopology

    • Electromagneticinterference



Best attributes of electric machines
Best Clutchattributes of electricmachines

  • Robust and simple:

    • Inductionmachine

    • Switchedreluctancemachine (SRM)

  • Lowcost

    • Inductionmachine

    • (SRM in the future)

  • Efficient

    • Permanentmagnetmachines


Comparison of electric machines
Comparison of electric machines Clutch

  • Great torque-speedcharacteristics

    • Switchedreluctancemachine

  • Weight, Size Power density

    • Permanentmagnetmachines

  • Controllability-> applicable to vehicleapplications

    • DC-machine

    • Inductionmachine

    • PM machine


Weaknesses in usefulness point of view
Weaknesses in usefulness point of view Clutch

  • Short speed-operationrange of permanentmagnetmachines

    • Need of gearboxifused in highspeedvehicles

  • Limited availability of switchedreluctancemachines

  • Price:

    • smallmarket -> smallproduction -> highcost


Typical efficiency characteristics of hev traction motors
Typical Efficiency Characteristics of HEV Traction Motors Clutch

Accurateefficiencyvaluesdependfrompower, voltageratings and machinetype

  • Maximum efficiencyusuallyaround 90 to 95 %

Asynchronous machine

Switched reluctance machine

Surface-permanentmagnetmachine

Interior-permanentmagnetmachine

S.S.Williamson, S.M.Lukic, A.Emadi, Comprehensive Drive Train Efficiency Analysis of Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicles Based on Motor-Controller Efficiency Modeling, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 730-740, May 2006


Group work select of electric machine depends on application
Group Clutchwork! Select of Electric Machine depends on application:

group1: sport car ( example Ferrari)

group 2: familycar(example Volvo)

group 3: smallcar(example Fiat)

group 4: truck (kuorma-auto)

group 5: Bus

group 6: non-roadmobile machine – tractor

group 7: non-road mobile machine– mineloader


Discussion what we should consider
Discussion Clutch: Whatweshouldconsider?

  • Neededtorque–speedcharacteristics

    • Torque at lowspeeds (constanttorqueregion)

    • Maximum speed

    • Maximum speedrelation to nominalspeed (wmax/wnom)

      • Constanttorqueregion

      • Fieldweakeningregion

      • Highvalue to achievegearlessoperation

    • Magnetizationmethod

    • Reluctancetorque

  • Control of powerelectronics

  • Location: Powertrainconfiguration

    • Amount of tractionmotors

  • Cost, size, cooling, etc.


Group 1 sport car1
Group 1: Clutchsportcar

  • What Motor type?

  • Cooling?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Group 2 family car1
Group Clutch2: familycar

  • What Motor

    type?

    Cooling needed?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Group 3 small car1
Group Clutch3: smallcar

  • What Motor type?

  • Cooling needed?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Group 4 truck1
Group Clutch4: truck

  • What Motor

    type?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Group 5 bus1
group 5: ClutchBus

  • What Motor type?

  • Cooling needed?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Group 6 tractor1
group 6 Clutch:Tractor

  • What Motor type?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Group 7 m ineloader1
group 7: ClutchMineloader

  • What Motor

    type?

    Cooling needed?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Near wheel motor lut
Near-wheel Clutchmotor (LUT)

The designed PMSM rotor structure comprises two permanent magnet layers embedded inside the rotor laminations. The PMSM can produce nominal torque with the nominal current in a wide speed range. the nominal torque is 240 Nm.

Tatiana Minav

Source: ICEM 2012 J.Nerg, Design of Direct-Driven Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors for an Electric Sports Car


In wheel motor hub motor
In-wheel Clutchmotor/ hubmotor

Like so many things, in-wheel motors have already been done, but technology and our ability to integrate them into wheels has changed a lot since the first in-wheel motor (also called a hub motor) was patented back in 1884 and, after disappearing for decades, they are starting to creep back into vehicle.

Tatiana Minav


In wheel motor
In-wheel Clutchmotor

  • High-efficiency

  • Direct drive

  • Regenerativebraking

  • Integration

  • No transmission ordriveshafts

    Example: Proteanelectronics:

    -built-ininverter and controlelectronics

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8tLQ2-yKT4Y

Tatiana Minav


Source: http Clutch://www.proteanelectric.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/2012_HTUF_-_Hybrid-Retrofit_Opportunities1.pdf

Tatiana Minav


How to control electric machine
How to control electric machine? Clutch

Tatiana Minav


Motor control
MOTOR CONTROL Clutch

  • Torquecontrol in widespeedrange

  • Speedcontrol

  • Position control

  • POWER ELECTRONICS is required for motorcontrol


What is power electronics pe
What Clutch is Power Electronics (PE) ?

  • Efficientuse of electricdrives and energystorages

  • Controllablecurrent-voltageratio

  • Electric hassmall inertia vs. hydrauliccomponents

  • Power electronicsystemsconvertsupply’s electricenergy into a formsuitable for the load

  • DC to variable AC

    • E.g. frombattery to electricmachine, and

  • AC to DC

    • E.g. regenerativebraking

    • E.g. fromgenerator to energystorageor DC link

  • DC to DC

    • E.g. frombattery to highvoltage DC link



Power electronics pe
Power ClutchElectronics (PE)

  • Enabling technology for electric and hybrid vehicles

  • High efficiency in wide operation area

  • Control of electric machines

  • Motor and generator operation modes

    • Regenerative braking

  • Challenges

    • Cost -> Manufacturing

    • Cooling -> size, lifetime

      • Semiconductorsmaxtemperature 120 – 175 degC

        • Need for additionalcoolingcircuit


Challenges in power electronics
Challenges Clutch in Power Electronics

  • Highefficiency (lowlosses)

    • powerlossesconvert into heat, whichyields to excessivecooling and thermalsizing of components

    • price of electricenergy and coolingsystem

  • Small size of products

    • highefficiency is crucial

      • coolingelementsarebulky and heavy

    • packagingdensity, integration of power and controlcomponents

  • Competitiveprice

3rd gen.

2nd gen.





Example ac motor drive
Example: AC Motor Drive Clutch

  • Converter 1 rectifiesline-frequency AC into DC

    Capacitoracts as a filter and decouples the twoconvertercircuits

  • Converter 2 producesvariable-frequency AC for the motor

    Polarity of DC voltagelinkremainsunchanged


Related topics
Related ClutchTopics

  • Electric Drives

    • control of drives, choice of motor and converter

  • Industrial Electronics

    • electronics, signalprocessing, measurementtechniques, soft computing

  • Electromechanics

  • Control engineering

  • Electromagnetics

  • Power Systems


Dc dc converters
DC–DC Converters Clutch

  • DC–DCconvertersareused in

    • Betweendifferent DC voltagelevels (e.g. energystorage and regulatedDC-link)

    • Power supplies

    • DC motordrives

  • The aim is to providepreciselycontrolledoutput voltageorcurrent


Dc dc converters1
DC–DC Converters Clutch

  • Single quadrant

    • oneactiveswitch, onediode, inductance and smoothingcapacitance

    • Buck, stepdown, vout ≤ vin

    • Boost, stepup, vout ≥ vin

    • Buck-boost, combination

  • Twoquadrant

    • E.g. bidirectionalboostconverter

  • Fourquadrant


Dc dc converter applications in vehicle environment
DC–DC Converter Applications in Vehicle Environment Clutch

  • Batterycharger / energystorageconverter

  • Fuelcellconverter

  • Heaters

  • Power supplies for

    • controlelectronics

    • auxiliarydevices


Ac dc rectifiers and dc ac inverters are used in
AC-DC RECTIFIERS AND DC-AC INVERTERS are used in Clutch

  • Traction motor control

  • Generator control (engine series-hybrids)

  • Other AC-supplies

    • Pumps

    • Fans


1 phase inverter
1-phase Clutchinverter

http://www.ipes.ethz.ch/ipes/e_index.html


Four quadrant converter dc drive
Four-Quadrant ClutchConverter (DC drive)

  • http://www.ipes.ethz.ch/ipes/MaschineDC/e_kreis.html

Tatiana Minav


Transmission gear box
Transmission/Gear Clutch box

  • Gearbox is used to slow down the output speed and increase torque.

  • In conventional car internal combustion engine typically operate over a range of 600 to 7000 rpm, while the car's wheels rotate between 0 rpm and around 1800 rpm.

  • Direct transmissions:

    • Manual,

    • Semi-Automatic

    • Automatic.

  • Non-direct transmissions:

    • electric,

    • Hydrostatic

    • hydrodynamic.

T.A.Minav


Transmission gear box1
Transmission/Gear Clutch box

  • Electric equivalent

  • Dynamic machine operation envelops electric torque versus mechanical speed

  • a) Parallel connection of phases,

  • b) series connection of phases

T.A.Minav


Electrciacl transmission gear box
Electrciacl ClutchTransmission/Gearbox

  • The presented principle is applied to a non-salient permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM), with six phases of which three sets of each two phases are driven with the same current, resulting in a balanced three-phase machine structure

T.A.Minav


F ull bridge
F Clutchull-bridge

  • Schematic representation of the two coils per phase, full-bridge per coil circuit capable of driving the coils individually or connected in series.

T.A.Minav


Conclusion
Conclusion Clutch

Now you Know what's EM is and what control it :)

Tatiana Minav


New group division
New Group Clutch division!

  • Count from 1 to 6.

Tatiana Minav


Homework 1
Homework 1 Clutch

Group 1: Batteries: Lead acid

Group 2: Batteries: Lithium

Group 3: Super capacitor

Group 4: Fuel cell

Group 5: Flywheel

Group 6: Hydraulic accumulator

read articles according to your group number and answer questions:

  • Advantages and Disadvantages of energy storage?

  • Price of energy storage? Availability on the market?

  • Possible applications? limitations?

Tatiana Minav


Homework 2
Homework 2 Clutch

  • Exersises 2 available on Noppa return before 21.1

Tatiana Minav


Feedback
Feedback Clutch

Tatiana Minav

[email protected]

Tatiana Minav


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