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Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

Hybrid and Electric Vehicles. March 2013 Fire Training. What is the difference between a hybrid vehicle and an electric vehicle?. What are some potential risks associated with hybrid and electric vehicles involved in emergency incidents? Vehicle Accident/Extrication Fire Submersion.

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Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

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  1. Hybrid and Electric Vehicles March 2013 Fire Training

  2. What is the difference between a hybrid vehicle and an electric vehicle?

  3. What are some potential risks associated with hybrid and electric vehicles involved in emergency incidents?Vehicle Accident/ExtricationFireSubmersion

  4. Hybrid Vehicles • Internal combustion engine and electric motor • < 30 mph – Battery power • > 30 mph – Gasoline engine • Batteries charge as you drive

  5. Electric Vehicles • Require an external source to recharge • Regenerative Braking

  6. HV Battery

  7. Volts, Amps, and Current

  8. Volts • Electrical potential in a circuit • Electromotive force • Example - PSI in hose stream

  9. Amps • Current – Number of electrons moving past a fixed point in one second • Current is measured in amps

  10. Current • Low current can be harmful if backed by a significant amount of voltage

  11. Direct Current (DC) • Electrons move in one direction • Mostly found in things that are powered by batteries • 12-volt battery

  12. Alternating Current (AC) • Travels in multiple directions • Power used to supply homes and businesses • AC has the ability to readily change voltages

  13. Circuits • For current to flow there most be a completed path

  14. Hybrid/Electric vehicles can operate in excess of 100 amps or 10,000 milliamps • 6 milliamps – Unable to let go of conductor • 70 milliamps – Burns • 105 milliamps – Heart stops

  15. Types of Hybrids • Full • Mild • Start-Stop • Plug-in

  16. Full Hybrid • Most hybrids on the road • Electric motor either assists engine or propels the vehicle at low speeds • Toyota Prius, Ford Escape

  17. Mild Hybrid • Electric motor is only designed to assist the gasoline engine • Does not propel the vehicle • Honda Civic, Honda Insight

  18. Start-Stop Hybrid • Intermediate voltage system • Allows the engine to shut down instead of idling • Electric engine does not propel the vehicle • Chevy Malibu

  19. Pure Electric • Nissan Leaf (weighs 660 lbs.) • Average 73 miles on full charge • Zero Gas – 100% electric

  20. Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV) • Can travel 40 miles on battery power alone • Onboard gasoline engine turns the electric generator and recharges the battery • Chevy Volt

  21. High Voltage Batteries • Nickel Metal Hydride (Hybrid) • 100-400 volts • Lithium Ion (Electric) • Location in Hybrids is almost always located in the truck or under second row seats • Located under the floor in electric vehicles

  22. What should high voltage mean to you? • Orange Cables • > 60 volts • Yellow or Blue cables • Intermediate voltage system

  23. DC • 12 volt battery • For current to flow, there must be a completed path • DC-DC Converter • Takes high voltage battery to 12-volts to power things like the radio, headlights, airbags, etc.

  24. Operating Procedure • Identify • Immobilize • Disable • Additional Hazards • High voltage electrical system • Unanticipated vehicle movement

  25. Establish command • Primary Size-up • 360 Size-up (Identify) • Deploy Hose Line • Immobilize • Disable • Patient care • Hazard control • Terminate Command

  26. Immobilize • Cribbing • Approach from the side • Place the vehicle in park • Engage the emergency brake

  27. Disable • Shut off the ignition • Disconnect the 12-volt battery • Shuts down both the 12-volt battery and DC-DC Converter

  28. Proximity Key • If the key can be located, remove it at least 16 feet from the vehicle

  29. Can’t shut off the ignition? • Locate the fuse that runs the high voltage system • Just shutting down the 12-volt battery is not enough, the ignition must be disabled as well

  30. Vehicle Fire Can I use water?

  31. DC electricity follows from the battery, along the electrical circuit and back to the battery • AC electricity • Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) • Immediately shuts down power if there is a short • Batteries will burn for a long time

  32. Submerged Vehicles • Manufactures recommend removing the vehicle from the water just like any other vehicle • You will not be shocked by an electric or hybrid vehicle that is submerged

  33. Helpful Resources

  34. AC Hotstick • One for each engine • One on each squad • Structure fires • Vehicle accidents • Lines down

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