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Global Change: Ozone Depletion. Environmental Sustainability Educational Resources prepared by Gregory A. Keoleian Associate Research Scientist, School of Natural Resources and Environment Co-Director , Center for Sustainable Systems University of Michigan. Contents.

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global change ozone depletion

Global Change: Ozone Depletion

Environmental Sustainability Educational Resources

prepared by

Gregory A. Keoleian

Associate Research Scientist,

School of Natural Resources and Environment

Co-Director, Center for Sustainable Systems

University of Michigan

contents
Contents
  • Ozone Depletion Process [slide 4]
  • Ozone Hole [slide 5]
  • Ozone Hole [slide 6]
  • Ozone Depleting Substances [slide 7]
  • Ozone Depleting Substances [slide 8]
  • Ozone Depleting Substances [slide 9]
  • Ozone Depletion Potential [slide 10]
  • Ozone Depletion Potential [slide 11]
  • Impacts [slide 12]
slide3
Montreal Protocol [slide 13]
  • Additional Resources [slide 14]
ozone depleting substances
Ozone Depleting Substances
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s)
    • contains: Cl, F, C
    • long-lived, non-toxic, non-corrosive, and non-flammable
    • in 1960’s used in refrigerators, air conditioners, spray cans, solvents, foams
    • phase out by 1996 in developed countries
slide8
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)
    • contains: H, Cl, F, C
    • first major replacement for CFC
      • ODP’s range from 0.01 - 0.1
    • much less destructive by also ozone depleting
    • reduce HCFC’s by 35% by 2004 in developed countries
  • Hydrofuluorocarbons (HFC)
    • contain: H, F, C
    • do not deplete O3
    • some HFC’s have a high GWP
slide9
Halons
    • contain: Br, Cl (in some but not all), F, H (in some but not all), C
    • Br many times more effective in destroying O3
      • ODPs range up to 10
    • used in fire extinguishers
    • phase out by 1994
  • Methyl Bromide (CH3Br)
    • an effective pesticide, used to fumigate ag soil and products
    • ODP = 0.4
    • production in US will end 12/31/2000
ozone depletion potential
Ozone Depletion Potential
  • Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP): a number that refers to the amount of ozone depletion caused by a substance
  • The ODP is the ratio of the impact on ozone of a chemical compared to the impact of a similar mass of CFC-11.
ozone depletion potential1
Ozone Depletion Potential
  • ODP of CFC-11 is defined to be 1.0.
  • Other CFCs and HCFCs have ODPs that range from 0.01 to 1.0.
  • Halons have ODPs ranging up to 10.
  • Carbon tetrachloride has an ODP of 1.2
  • Methyl chloroform's ODP is 0.11.
  • HFCs have zero ODP because they do not contain chlorine.
impacts
Impacts
  • Ozone layer absorbs most of the harmful UV-B radiation; more UV-B means:
    • more melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers
    • more eye cataracts
    • weakened immune systems
    • reduced plant yields
    • damage to ocean eco-ecosystems
    • more damage to plastics
montreal protocol
Montreal Protocol
  • Vienna Convention in 1985
    • framework agreement
  • Montreal Protocol in 1987
    • Phase-out schedules for CFCs and halons
  • London Amendment in 1990
    • accelerated phase outs; additional CFC’s, CCl4, CH3CCl3
  • Copenhagen Amendment in 1992
    • added methyl bromide, HBFCs, HCFCs
  • Montreal Amendment in 1997
    • finalized phase-out schedules for methyl bromide
additional resources
Additional Resources
  • US EPA
    • web site: http://www.epa.gov/ozone/
  • NASA
    • web site: http://www.nas.nasa.gov/Services/Education/Resources/TeacherWork/Ozone/Ozone.homepage.html