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MET 112 Global Climate Change: Lecture 12

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  1. MET 112 Global Climate Change: Lecture 12 Controls on Climate Change Professor Menglin Jin Outline: • IPCC • CA Efforts on Energy • Kyoto Treat

  2. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change ‘stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic human induced interference with the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner’

  3. Figure: Courtesy of IPCC

  4. http://www.ipcc.ch/

  5. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific BasisWGI contribution to IPCC Third Assessment Report Summary for Policymakers (SPM) Drafted by a team of 59 Approved ‘sentence by sentence’ by WGI plenary (99 Governments and 45 scientists) 14 chapters 881 pages 120 Lead Authors 515 Contributing Authors 4621 References quoted

  6. IPCC Assessment Report • IPCC-Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change • Greenhouse gas concentrations continue to rise (warming). • Anthropogenic aerosols tend to produce negative radiative forcing (cooling) “The balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate” (IPCC) 1997 "There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities.“ (IPCC),2001 (IPCC) 2007

  7. IPCC Assessment Report • IPCC-Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change • Greenhouse gas concentrations continue to rise (warming). • Anthropogenic aerosols tend to produce negative radiative forcing (cooling) “The balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate” (IPCC) 1997 "There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities.“ (IPCC),2001 The IPCC finds that it is “very likely” that emissions of heat-trapping gases from human activities have caused “most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century. (IPCC) 2007

  8. Human Responsibility for Climate Change The IPCC finds that it is “very likely” that emissions of heat-trapping gases from human activities have caused “most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century.” Source: IPCC Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis—Summary for Policymakers.

  9. IPCC video • http://www.met.sjsu.edu/metr112-videos/MET%20112%20Video%20Library-MP4/future%20impact%20from%20ipcc/

  10. Model Sensitivity • Models (like the atmosphere) are sensitive systems. • They can respond differently to the same radiative forcing, e.g., a doubling of CO2 • This means that different models give different answers to the same problem • Thus, we use a range of models to determine the range of possible future scenarios.

  11. Model Sensitivity • Models (like the atmosphere) are sensitive systems. • They can respond differently to the same radiative forcing, e.g., a doubling of CO2 • Thus, we use a range of models to determine the range of possible future scenarios.

  12. Emission Scenarios SRES (special report on emission scenarios)

  13. Scenarios

  14. CO2 concentrations (amount)

  15. Future Predictions: Temperature

  16. Notes on Temperature Projections • Projected Warming: 2000 – 2100 ranges from ~1.4°C to ~5.8°C. • Curves represent warming produced for seven scenarios by a model with average sensitivity. • Each bar on right represent range of warming produced • by models of differing sensitivies for a specific scenario.

  17. Land areas are projected to warm more than the oceans with the greatest warming at high latitudes Annual mean temperature change, 2071 to 2100 relative to 1990: Global Average in 2085 = 3.1oC

  18. Some areas are projected to become wetter, others drier with an overall increase projected Annual mean precipitation change: 2071 to 2100 Relative to 1990

  19. Sea Level

  20. Sea Level Rise Annual mean precipitation change: 2071 to 2100 Relative to 1990

  21. Class participation Questions • What percentage of electricity generation comes from the burning of natural gas? • What percentage of transportation energy comes from natural gas burning? • What percentage of transportation energy use comes from coal? • If you buy an electric car, what is the mostly likely source of energy? • Where does most residential energy come from?

  22. Energy and Climate Change • Obviously, one of the main issues related to climate change is the burning of fossil fuels • Thus, energy use, and the continuing demand for energy are central to the challenges of climate change.

  23. Tons of CO2 emitted per person

  24. US CO2 Emissions • Total emissions ~ 5,788.5 million metric tons • ~ 22 metric tons per person • Industry: 35% • Transportation: 33% • Residences: 18% • Commercial: 14% • 1,600 million metric tons due to personal use (~33%)

  25. Average US Personal Energy Use (Per Person) • Automobile fuel: 38 gallons per month Natural Gas: 15 therms per month • Electricity: 190 Kilowatt-hours per month • Airline Miles flown  147 miles per monthTotal: • Latest estimate ~ • Kyoto allowance (for US): • ~ • To stabilize climate (550ppm)

  26. Average US Personal Energy Use (Per Person) • Automobile fuel: 38 gallons per month Natural Gas: 15 therms per month • Electricity: 190 Kilowatt-hours per month • Airline Miles flown  147 miles per monthTotal: • Latest estimate ~ 17,600 lbs of CO2 • Kyoto allowance (for US): • ~11,000 pounds • To stabilize climate (550ppm) • 4,700 pounds

  27. Mitigation of climate change • Mitigation: • Steps taken to avoid or minimize negative environmental impacts. • Mitigation can include: • avoiding the impact by not taking a certain action; • minimizing impacts by limiting the degree or • magnitude of the action; • rectifying the impact by repairing or • restoring the affected environment

  28. Climate Change Impacts • What signals would we expect from a warmer world? • Higher average temperature • Higher maximum temperatures • Higher minimum temperatures • More precipitation • Higher sea level • etc • What ‘evidence’ do we have for changes in the 20th century?

  29. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005 The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012.

  30. The Kyoto Protocol • A United Nations sponsored effort: • Calls for reductions of greenhouse gas emissions by industrialized countries of 5.2 per cent below 1990 levels. • The Protocol will go into force after • The protocol has been ratified by a minimum of 55 countries. • The ratifying nations comprise 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions. • Current status: • 156 countries have signed accounting for 61% of global CO2. • US not planning on signing protocol (US accounts for 36% of CO2 emitted) • Kyoto protocol went into force in Feb 2005

  31. Kyoto Protocol • Aim: • Ways to reduce increasing GHG • Goals: • Enhancement of energy efficiency in relevant sectors of the national economy

  32. Kyoto Protocol • Aim: • Ways to reduce increasing GHG • Goals: • Enhancement of energy efficiency in relevant sectors of the national economy • Protection and enhancement of sinks

  33. Kyoto Protocol • Aim: • Ways to reduce increasing GHG • Goals: • Enhancement of energy efficiency in relevant sectors of the national economy • Protection and enhancement of sinks • Promote sustainable agriculture

  34. Kyoto Protocol • Aim: • Ways to reduce increasing GHG • Goals: • Enhancement of energy efficiency in relevant sectors of the national economy • Protection and enhancement of sinks • Promote sustainable agriculture • Research and promote new and renewable energy

  35. Kyoto Protocol • Aim: • Ways to reduce increasing GHG • Goals: • Enhancement of energy efficiency in relevant sectors of the national economy • Protection and enhancement of sinks • Promote sustainable agriculture • Research and promote new and renewable energy • Phase out any incentives for ‘bad practice’

  36. Kyoto Protocol • Aim: • Ways to reduce increasing GHG • Goals: • Enhancement of energy efficiency in relevant sectors of the national economy • Protection and enhancement of sinks • Promote sustainable agriculture • Research and promote new and renewable energy • Phase out any incentives for ‘bad practice’ • Encourage ‘good practices’