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Latin I: Introduction to Latin Nouns PowerPoint Presentation
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Latin I: Introduction to Latin Nouns

Latin I: Introduction to Latin Nouns

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Latin I: Introduction to Latin Nouns

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  1. Latin I: Introduction to Latin Nouns PHS 2012-2013

  2. Basic Terms – Inflection • Inflection: (> inflectere) the endings of nouns, adjectives, and verbs change to reflect their function in the sentence.

  3. Basic Terms Subject, Predicate, and Direct Object • Subject: the noun/pronoun that performs the action of the verb; the noun/pronoun about which something is said • Predicate: says something about the subject/modifies the subject; the predicate includes everything except the subject.

  4. Basic Terms Subject, Predicate, and Direct Object • Subject: the noun/pronoun that performs the action of the verb; the noun/pronoun about which something is said • Predicate: says something about the subject/modifies the subject; the predicate includes everything except the subject. • The predicate must contain a verb; often it also contains a Direct Object, the noun/pronoun upon which the verb acts.

  5. A simple English sentence…

  6. A simple English sentence… The dog bites the girl.

  7. A simple English sentence… The dog bites the girl.

  8. A simple English sentence… The dog bites the girl.

  9. A simple English sentence… What happens to the meaning of the English sentence if we change the order of thewords? What happens to the meaning of the English sentence if we change the order of the nouns? Does the meaning change???

  10. A simple English sentence… What happens to the meaning of the English sentence if we change the order of thewords? In English, does the meaning change if word order is changed?

  11. A simple English sentence… What happens to the meaning of the English sentence if we change the order of thewords? In English, does the meaning change if word order is changed? Absolutely. ENGLISH RELIES ON WORD ORDER TO PRODUCE MEANING.

  12. A simple English sentence… What happens to the meaning of the English sentence if we change the order of thewords? Another Important Question: Is there anything about the SPELLING of the nouns that indicates their function in each sentence?

  13. A simple English sentence… What happens to the meaning of the English sentence if we change the order of thewords? Another Important Question: Is there anything about the SPELLING of the nouns that indicates their function in each sentence? NO – ENGLISH RELIES ON WORD ORDER TO PRODUCE MEANING.

  14. A simple English sentence… What happens to the meaning of the English sentence if we change the order of thewords? However, the ENDINGS of many English PRONOUNS change to indicate whether they are Subjects or Direct Objects.

  15. A simple English sentence… What happens to the meaning of the English sentence if we change the order of thewords? However, the ENDINGS of many English PRONOUNS change to indicate whether they are Subjects or Direct Objects. English DOES use Inflection to indicate this relationship between many pronouns.

  16. A simple English sentence… What happens to the meaning of the English sentence if we change the order of thewords? However, the ENDINGS of many English PRONOUNS change to indicate whether they are Subjects or Direct Objects. English DOES use Inflection to indicate this relationship between many pronouns.

  17. A simple English sentence… What happens to the meaning of the English sentence if we change the order of thewords? However, the ENDINGS of many English PRONOUNS change to indicate whether they are Subjects or Direct Objects. English DOES use Inflection to indicate this relationship between many pronouns.

  18. English rarely (if ever) changes the endings of nouns to indicate function. • English does change the endings of pronouns to indicate function.

  19. English rarely (if ever) changes the endings of nouns to indicate function. • English does change the endings of pronouns to indicate function. • Latin always changes the endings of all nouns and pronouns to indicate function.

  20. English and Latin Compared What happens to the meaning of the English sentence if we change the order of thewords? canis, canis, masc. +mordet + puella, puellae, fem.

  21. English and Latin Compared What happens to the meaning of the English sentence if we change the order of thewords? canis, canis, masc. +mordet + puella, puellae, fem.

  22. English and Latin Compared What happens to the meaning of the English sentence if we change the order of thewords? canis, canis, masc. +mordet + puella, puellae, fem.

  23. Typical Latin Word Order What happens to the meaning of the English sentence if we change the order of thewords? • In Latin, the SUBJECT is usually the first word of a sentence, and the VERB is usually the last word of a sentence.

  24. Typical Latin Word Order • In Latin, the SUBJECT is usually the first word of a sentence, and the VERB is usually the last word of a sentence. • But does anything about the meaning of the Latin sentence change if we change the word order?

  25. Typical Latin Word Order • In Latin, the SUBJECT is usually the first word of a sentence, and the VERB is usually the last word of a sentence. • But does anything about the meaning of the Latin sentence change if we change the word order? • NO – LATIN RELIES ON ENDINGS, NOT WORD ORDER, TO • PRODUCE MEANING. • All 6 sentences can mean only “Dog bites girl.”

  26. Basic Terms – Case • Latin uses Case endings, not word order, to indicate function. • Case: the ending of a Latin noun/pronoun, which indicates its function in the sentence.

  27. Basic Terms – Case • Latin uses Case endings, not word order, to indicate function. • Case: the ending of a Latin noun/pronoun, which indicates its function in the sentence. • Nominative Case: (> nomen) The nominative case names the Subject.

  28. Basic Terms – Case • Latin uses Case endings, not word order, to indicate function. • Case: the ending of a Latin noun/pronoun, which indicates its function in the sentence. • Nominative Case: (> nomen) The nominative case names the Subject. • Accusative Case: The accusative case shows the Direct Object.

  29. Which Case? What happens to the meaning of the English sentence if we change the order of thewords?

  30. Which Case? What happens to the meaning of the English sentence if we change the order of thewords?

  31. Basic Terms – Decline, Declension • Decline: to add endings to a noun • Declension: a set of nouns that follows the same pattern of endings

  32. Basic Terms – Decline, Declension • Decline: to add endings to a noun • Declension: a set of nouns that follows the same pattern of endings • Latin has 5 Declensions. • First declension nouns in vocabulary lists and dictionaries all follow a consistent pattern: –a, –aepuella, puellae, fem. nauta, nautae, masc. terra, terrae, fem.

  33. First Declension nouns • First declension nouns ALWAYS end in: • -a in the nominative singular (puella) • -aein the nominative plural (puellae) • -am in the accusative singular (puellam) • -āsin the accusative plural (puellās)