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  1. Tajikistan: Crisis of Drug Trafficking Lindsay Furmanek

  2. Introduction • Smallest of 15 former republics of Soviet Union • Located in Central Asia- borders Afghan., Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, China • 54,000 Sq.Miles - landlocked • 93% is mountainous terrain • Roughly size of WI =

  3. Mountain Ranges • 3 Prominent Mountain Ranges • Pamir (border w/ China) • Alay • Tian Shan http://www.the-spoiler.com/Sinjin/INDY/itext3.htm

  4. Pamir Mountains Excellent ski resorts in Pamirs

  5. Sarez Lake Sarez Lake -result of an earthquake

  6. The People • Total Population - 6.2 million • Majority of people are Tajiks • Uzbeks, Russians (mostly in capital of Dushanbe) • Tajik minority in northern Afghanistan

  7. The People • Tajiks divided in to 2 major social groups: • The Lowland Tajiks/Southern Tajiks • The Mountain/Pamir Tajiks

  8. Pamir Tajiks

  9. Southern Tajiks

  10. The People • 80% Sunni Muslim • Also smaller population of Shiites • Russian Orthodox/Small Jewish and Christian communities • Tajik laguage -Iranian/Farsi (based on Persian Dialects) • The only ex-soviet state to use Arabic script • Wide use of Russian in the state administration and Business

  11. Caravan Jackal Spinach Caravansary Paradise Pistachio Tambourine Lilac Divan Shawl Khaki Julep Azure Bazaar Taffeta Farsi words in English

  12. The Silk Road • The Silk Road carried riches from the Orient to Europe. The prosperity of the road belongs to history, but its ancient promotion of east-west cultural exchange and the many historical relics it left behind are still very vivid.

  13. The Economy • Poorest of former USSR • Economy built on Agriculture • Employs 2/5 of labor force • Cotton - most important crop • Economy severely weakened from 6 yr. civil war • Industry • Lg. Aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, small factories

  14. Brief History • Constant Invasions • 7th century - Arabs(enforced Islamic religion) • 12th century - Mongols • 15th century - Uzbeks • Afghan civil wars have spilled over

  15. Brief History • Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic within USSR – Russian empire took control (1976) - had full control by end of 19th century • Independence in 1991 • Civil War (1992-1997)

  16. Tajik Civil War • The Tajik civil war involved: • The government of President Imomali Rakhmonov vs. United Tajik Opposition (UTO) • In May 1992, the Tajik opposition seized power from the Tajik Supreme Soviet (parliament), precipitating civil war • The opposition was defeated in December 1992 and the current Tajik government assumed control

  17. Tajikistan Civil War • The defeated opposition was: a coalition of self-declared democratic and Islamic groups and Islamic fundamentalists and Pamiris - (traditionally underrepresented in the ruling coalitions during Soviet and pre-Soviet rule) • The winning coalition was: supported by Russian, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and Uzbek forces • Tajikistan remains in the hands of a largely authoritarian government, although it has established some nominally democratic structures

  18. Effects of Civil War • Tajikistan is strongly affected by the consequences of the civil war: • Human Losses (1% of Population-60,000 deaths) • Material Losses ($7 billion-18 yrs GDP) • Socio-Political effects (1 of 6 Tajiks displaced) • Moral and psychological consequences (civilian violence, terrorism) • collapse of the national economy

  19. 1996 GDP: purchasing power parity - $8.5 billion GDP - real growth rate: 12% GDP per capita: $1,415 2000 GDP: purchasing power parity- $7.3 billion GDP - real growth rate: 5.1% GDP - per capita: $1,140 Population below poverty line: 80% Effects on the Economy

  20. Effect on the Economy • dramatic increase in the poverty of the population • The unemployment rate in major towns in southern Tajikistan is 60-80% • 30% of the population is dependent on the illicit drug business

  21. Effects of Civil War • involvement of many poor citizens of Tajikistan in illicit drug trafficking and other criminal activities • drastic increase in the flow of illegal narcotics across long Afghanistan border.

  22. A Current Issue • Drug Trafficking • Opium and heroin • opium transformed into refined heroin • Tajikistan faces security problem with 1,400-kilometer mountainous border with Afghanistan • -majority grown in Afghanistan due to ideal conditions

  23. Current Issue • Since raw opium commands a price as much as 10 times richer than wheat does this has grown widespread • poppy (ingredient in opium) requires less effort in cultivation than grain

  24. Heroin Drug Trafficking Routes

  25. A Current Issue • Opium production increased tenfold • In areas of Tajikistan bordering Afghanistan one kg. of raw opium costs less than .50 • Price doubles in Dushanbe and redoubles in Russia

  26. A current Issue • increasing number of residents of areas bordering on Afghanistan involved in smuggling • 35 % of Tajikistan's GDP comes from drug trafficking

  27. A Current Issue • According to the EU : drug trafficking increased dramatically since 2001 • The Taliban had restricted opium crops • Strong and powerful organized-crime groups operating in Tajikistan • According to UN calculations: Tajikistan 1st among the CIS countries, 4th in world for trafficking at borders

  28. A Current Issue • Most drug trafficking routes follow the road and railway systems • Large portion of drugs flown out of Dushanbe by air • Pamir mountains also facing problem • extremely isolated from rest of country, especially in winter time

  29. Effects of the People • Drug addicts in state institutions increased more than 4 times in the last 7 yrs • 74 % reportedly use heroin (real figure probably 10-15 times higher) • HIV following Heroine traffic routes • Getting infected with HIV criminal offence because linked with drug use and culturally inappropriate behavior

  30. Drug Trafficking Problem • Seizure of roughly 22 tons of drugs, worth $500 million • Tajikistan is traditionally the first stop for heroin and opium from Afghanistan to be smuggled to Western markets

  31. Taking Action • Tajikistan and Germany recently conducted joint operation • Russian border troops posted along the Tajik-Afghan border • Drugs burning after being seized at Afghan border-over 1,000 lbs of heroine

  32. Taking Action • “The problem can not be fought on a regional basis” - Imomali Rakhmonov • Created a global coalition against drugs • Tajik efforts over the past 3 years extremely successful • CRACKING DOWN!

  33. Conclusion • A small country with BIG problems

  34. Any Questions??