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Tajikistan: . Crisis of Drug Trafficking. Lindsay Furmanek. Introduction. Smallest of 15 former republics of Soviet Union Located in Central Asia- borders Afghan., Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, China 54,000 Sq.Miles - landlocked 93% is mountainous terrain

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Crisis of Drug Trafficking

Lindsay Furmanek

  • Smallest of 15 former republics of Soviet Union
    • Located in Central Asia- borders Afghan., Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, China
    • 54,000 Sq.Miles - landlocked
    • 93% is mountainous terrain
    • Roughly size of WI


mountain ranges
Mountain Ranges
  • 3 Prominent Mountain Ranges
    • Pamir (border w/ China)
    • Alay
    • Tian Shan


pamir mountains
Pamir Mountains

Excellent ski resorts in Pamirs

sarez lake
Sarez Lake

Sarez Lake

-result of an earthquake

the people
The People
  • Total Population - 6.2 million
  • Majority of people are Tajiks
    • Uzbeks, Russians (mostly in capital of Dushanbe)
    • Tajik minority in northern Afghanistan
the people1
The People
  • Tajiks divided in to 2 major social groups:
    • The Lowland Tajiks/Southern Tajiks
    • The Mountain/Pamir Tajiks
the people2
The People
  • 80% Sunni Muslim
  • Also smaller population of Shiites
  • Russian Orthodox/Small Jewish and Christian communities
  • Tajik laguage -Iranian/Farsi (based on Persian Dialects)
  • The only ex-soviet state to use Arabic script
  • Wide use of Russian in the state administration and Business
farsi words in english















Farsi words in English
the silk road
The Silk Road
  • The Silk Road carried riches from the Orient to Europe. The prosperity of the road belongs to history, but its ancient promotion of east-west cultural exchange and the many historical relics it left behind are still very vivid.
the economy
The Economy
  • Poorest of former USSR
  • Economy built on Agriculture
    • Employs 2/5 of labor force
    • Cotton - most important crop
    • Economy severely weakened from 6 yr. civil war
  • Industry
    • Lg. Aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, small factories
brief history
Brief History
  • Constant Invasions
    • 7th century - Arabs(enforced Islamic religion)
    • 12th century - Mongols
    • 15th century - Uzbeks
    • Afghan civil wars have

spilled over

brief history1
Brief History
  • Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic within USSR – Russian empire took control (1976) - had full control by end of 19th century
  • Independence in 1991
  • Civil War (1992-1997)
tajik civil war
Tajik Civil War
  • The Tajik civil war involved:
    • The government of President Imomali Rakhmonov vs. United Tajik Opposition (UTO)
    • In May 1992, the Tajik opposition seized power from the Tajik Supreme Soviet (parliament), precipitating civil war
    • The opposition was defeated in December 1992 and the current Tajik government assumed control
tajikistan civil war
Tajikistan Civil War
  • The defeated opposition was: a coalition of self-declared democratic and Islamic groups and Islamic fundamentalists and Pamiris - (traditionally underrepresented in the ruling coalitions during Soviet and pre-Soviet rule)
  • The winning coalition was: supported by Russian, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and Uzbek forces
  • Tajikistan remains in the hands of a largely authoritarian government, although it has established some nominally democratic structures
effects of civil war
Effects of Civil War
  • Tajikistan is strongly affected by the consequences of the civil war:
    • Human Losses (1% of Population-60,000 deaths)
    • Material Losses ($7 billion-18 yrs GDP)
    • Socio-Political effects (1 of 6 Tajiks displaced)
    • Moral and psychological consequences (civilian violence, terrorism)
    • collapse of the national economy
effects on the economy

GDP: purchasing power parity - $8.5 billion

GDP - real growth rate: 12%

GDP per capita:



GDP: purchasing power parity- $7.3 billion

GDP - real growth rate: 5.1%

GDP - per capita:


Population below poverty line: 80%

Effects on the Economy
effect on the economy
Effect on the Economy
  • dramatic increase in the poverty of the population
  • The unemployment rate in major towns in southern Tajikistan is 60-80%
  • 30% of the population is dependent on the illicit drug business
effects of civil war1
Effects of Civil War
  • involvement of many poor citizens of Tajikistan in illicit drug trafficking and other criminal activities
  • drastic increase in the flow of illegal narcotics across long Afghanistan border.
a current issue
A Current Issue
  • Drug Trafficking
  • Opium and heroin
    • opium transformed into refined heroin
  • Tajikistan faces security problem with 1,400-kilometer mountainous border with Afghanistan
    • -majority grown in Afghanistan due to ideal conditions
current issue
Current Issue
  • Since raw opium commands a price as much as 10 times richer than wheat does this has grown widespread
  • poppy (ingredient in opium) requires less effort in cultivation than grain
a current issue1
A Current Issue
  • Opium production increased tenfold
  • In areas of Tajikistan bordering Afghanistan one kg. of raw opium costs less than .50
  • Price doubles in Dushanbe and redoubles in Russia
a current issue2
A current Issue
  • increasing number of residents of areas bordering on Afghanistan involved in smuggling
  • 35 % of Tajikistan's GDP comes from drug trafficking
a current issue3
A Current Issue
  • According to the EU : drug trafficking increased dramatically since 2001
    • The Taliban had restricted opium crops
  • Strong and powerful organized-crime groups operating in Tajikistan
  • According to UN calculations: Tajikistan 1st among the CIS countries, 4th in world for trafficking at borders
a current issue4
A Current Issue
  • Most drug trafficking routes follow the road and railway systems
  • Large portion of drugs flown out of Dushanbe by air
    • Pamir mountains also facing problem
      • extremely isolated from rest of country, especially in winter time
effects of the people
Effects of the People
  • Drug addicts in state institutions increased more than 4 times in the last 7 yrs
  • 74 % reportedly use heroin (real figure probably 10-15 times higher)
  • HIV following Heroine traffic routes
    • Getting infected with HIV criminal offence because linked with drug use and culturally inappropriate behavior
drug trafficking problem
Drug Trafficking Problem
  • Seizure of roughly 22 tons of drugs, worth $500 million
  • Tajikistan is traditionally the first stop for heroin and opium from Afghanistan to be smuggled to Western markets
taking action
Taking Action
  • Tajikistan and Germany recently conducted joint operation
  • Russian border troops posted along the Tajik-Afghan border
  • Drugs burning after being seized at Afghan border-over 1,000 lbs of heroine
taking action1
Taking Action
  • “The problem can not be fought on a regional basis” - Imomali Rakhmonov
  • Created a global coalition against drugs
  • Tajik efforts over the past 3 years extremely successful
  • A small country with BIG problems