Adverbial Clauses and Phrases Lesson 8
Independent and dependent She came to the U.S. so that she could be with her relatives.
Independent and dependent So that she could be with her relatives, she came to the U.S.
Independent / Dependent She came to the U.S.So that she could be with her relatives. If she saves enough money,she will visit her first country. She came to Canadabefore she came to the U.S. Because of war,many Bosnians came to the U.S. Even though she didn’t know English, she came to Canada.
Independent / Dependent She came to the U.S. So that she could be with her relatives. If she saves enough money, she will visit her first country. She came to Canada before she came to the U.S. Because of war,many Bosnians came to the U.S. Even though she didn’t know English, she came to Canada.
Independent / Dependent She came to the U.S. So that she could be with her relatives. If she saves enough money, she will visit her first country. She came to Canada before she came to the U.S. Because of war,many Bosnians came to the U.S. Even though she didn’t know English,she came to Canada.
5 Types of Adverbial Clauses • Time • Reason • Purpose • Contrast • Conditions
5 Types of Adverbial Clauses • Time (before) • Reason (because) • Purpose (so that) • Contrast (even though) • Conditions (if)
Types of Adverbial Clauses • Time Clauses (She went to Canada before she came to the U.S. • Reason Clause ( She went to Canada first because she couldn’t get a visa for the U.S. • Purpose Clause (She came to the U.S. so that she could be with her relatives
Types of Adverbial ClausesCont. • Contrast Clause (She came to the U.S. even though she didn’t know English. • Condition Clause (She will go back to her country if she saves enough money.
An adverbial clause is dependent on the main clause and MUST be attached. Wrong: She came to America. Because she wanted to study. Right: She came to America because she wanted to study. The dependent clause can come before or after the independent clause. If it comes before, it is usually separated by a comma. Even though I’m not tired, I think I’ll take a break. Language note
Reasons and purposes • Many Irish came to the U.S. because ofhunger. • Since you are late, you will need a pass. (similar to because) • In order to make money, my family came to the U.S. • Some people came to the U.S. for freedom.
Reasons and purposes(cont.) • Many people come to the U.S. so that they can be reunited with family. (present tense) • So that I would learn English, I came to Canada. (past tense)
Page 330Read “Reason and PurposeCreate 6 sentences because because of since for in order to so that
Page 331 and 332#1 and #2 because because of since for in order to so that
Answers for ex. 1 p. 331 • 1.because • 2. so that • 3. so that • 4. because • 5. because of • 6. in order to • 7. Since • 8. in order to • 9. for • 10. so that • 11. to • 12. because • 13. for
Time Expressions • When“at that time” “immediately after that time” • Whenever “any time” or “every time” • Until “up to that time” • Since/ ever since from that time in the past to the present” • For the amount of time
Time Expressions Cont. • During use with day, night, month, summer or a specific time period. • While / as with a continuous action Notes: For is an amount of time, but during is with a named time period. When: used with a sample past action While: used with a continuous action (ing)
Now practice in your journal • Page 337 Exercises 4 and 5 (only write the answers)
Answers p. 337 ex 4 • Until • Since • While • During • When • For • During • While • While • Since • When • While • For • until
Answers p. 337 and 338 ex. 5 • Whenever (every time) 2. For 3. Whenever 4. When 5. For 6. When 7. While 14. until 8. Until 9. Since 10. Since 11. For 12. While 13. During
To Show Contrast For an unexpected result or contrast of ideas, use a clause beginning with: Even though Although In spite of the fact that Try using each of these phrases in a sentence with a partner.
Note on in spite of • Use in spite of + noun phrase to show contrast. • A clause does not follow in spite of Ex: In spite of their hard lives, the lost Boys are hopeful about their futures.
Still and Anyway • Still and anyway can be used in the main clause to emphasize the contrast. Ex: Even though the Lost Boys are happy in the U.S., they still miss their families. Ex: Even thought it’s hard for an immigrant to work and go to school, they have to do it anyway.
Let’s Practice! • Find a partner and complete the sentences out loud. Do NOT write • P. 343 Ex. 10 and 11 Examples for 10 • I like my apartment even though the rent is high. 6. I like my job in spite of the fact that my boss doesn’t handle conflict well. Example for 11: (make a contrast.) Even though the U.S. is a rich country, there are many homeless.
Scored Review Use the following phrases in sentences. Write on a piece of paper and hand in While (ing verb) Whenever Ever since Until Even though. . .still Although. . .anyway In spite of the fact that
Transitions(Sentence Connectors) • However, Nevertheless: Show contrast (similar to but) Ex.: The U.S. is not a perfect country. Nevertheless, many people want to immigrate here. • In addition, Furthermore, Moreover: add more information (similar to and) Ex: My sister came to the U.S. to earn money. Furthermore, she wanted to be reunited with her family.
Transitions Cont. • Therefore, As a result, For this reason: show result or conclusion. (similar to so) Ex: Many couples in China prefer sons. As a result, the majority of adoptions from China are girls.
Punctuation Note • Use either a period or a semicolon (;) before a transition. • A comma is used after the connector. Ex: My friends couldn’t adopt a baby here. Therefore, they went to another country to adopt. Ex: My friends couldn’t adopt a baby here; therefore, they went to another country to adopt.
Let’s Practice! • Write the answer in your journal after your notes. • Page 352-354 Ex 18 #1-21
So. . .that/ Such. . .that • Such + adjective + noun + that Ex. The Sudanese Boys had such an awful trip that many of them died along the way. Ex. We waited such a long time to catch the bus that we missed the concert.
So. . .that/Such thatcontinued • So + adjective + that • So + adverb + that Ex. Foreign adoption is so expensive that many people cannot afford it. Ex. Small children learn English so easily that the become fluent in a short time.
So. . .that/Such thatWith Countable Nouns • So many + plural count noun + that • So few + plural count noun + that Ex. There are so many students in the room that we don’t have enough desks for them. There are so few desks available that many students need to sit on the floor.
So. . .that/Such thatWith uncountable nouns • So much + noncount noun + that • So little + nonount noun + that Ex.: There was so much poverty in Ireland in the 1800s that Irish people were forced to leave. Ex: The Sudanese Boys had so little to eatthat many of them died.
Let’s practice • Write your answers in your journal beneath your notes. • Page 357 Ex. 21 #1-10