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Ancient Egypt. Time Line. A.D. B.C. 500. 500. 3000. 2500. 2000. 1500. 1000. 3500. 270 B.C. Meroitic Period In Kush. 2625 B.C. Old Kingdom Begins. 1539 B.C. New Kingdom Begins. 730 B.C. Nubian Dynasty Rules Egypt. Geography of Northern Africa. Vocabulary:.

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slide2
Time Line

A.D.

B.C.

500

500

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

3500

270 B.C.

Meroitic Period

In Kush

2625 B.C.

Old Kingdom

Begins

1539 B.C.

New Kingdom

Begins

730 B.C.

Nubian Dynasty

Rules Egypt

slide3
Geography of Northern Africa

Vocabulary:

A grassy plain with many

trees and animals.

savanna

Low land formed at the

mouth of some rivers by

the silt the river drops

there.

delta

slide4
A series of rapids and

waterfalls.

cataracts

slide5
The Nile Valley

During the Old Stone Age, the

Paleolithic period, the area we know

today as the Sahara Desert was

a savanna. The people living

there were hunters and gatherers.

Around 5000 B.C., the climate began

to change and the Sahara began to

dry. Animals left and plants died.

slide6
People were not able to survive in the

harsh desert and began to move into

the Nile River Valley.

  • TheNile River Valley hasfertile land

along each side of the river.

  • It is the world’s longest river.
  • The river flows northward for more

than 4,000 miles from its main source

at Lake Victoria in central Africa.

slide7
The river flows to the Mediterranean

Sea where the Nile Delta is formed.

The land around the river is higher

at the beginning of the river and lower

near the mouth of the river.

The ancient people called the higher

land in the south “Upper Egypt.”

The land in the north, the delta area,

was called “Lower Egypt.”

slide8
Lower Egypt was made up

mainly of the Nile Delta.

  • The delta forms a huge triangle at
  • the mouth of the river. Long ago the
  • river broke up into many branches, but
  • today there are only two.
  • High cliffs surrounded the Nile in

Upper Egypt. In some places there

was a narrow strip of flat fertile land

between the cliffs and the river.

slide9
The cliffs are made of

limestone and sandstone.

  • Farther south, in the area once known
  • as Nubia, the cliffs are made of granite.
  • The river hasn’t been able to cut a clear
  • path through the hard granite and runs
  • through cataracts, a series of rapids
  • and waterfalls.
slide10
Upper and Lower Egypt
  • Both had rich soil.
  • The land was perfect for growing crops.
  • People were able to settle around the
  • river and farm instead of hunting and
  • gathering.

Sound Familiar ?

slide11
Black Land

Each year heavy rains in central

Africa caused the river to overflow

its banks. When the floodwaters

drained away, a rich silt remained.

The silt was a natural fertilizer.

The dark soil was called “Kemet”

meaning “black land.”

slide12
Black Land

The Ancient Egyptians believed

their god Hapi caused the yearly

flooding.

The yearly flooding continued until the

Aswan Dam was built in 1972.

Now the people use pumps,

canals, and chemical fertilizer

to keep the land suitable for farming.

slide13
Red Land

The dry, barren lands of the Sahara

were known as “Deshuret,” or the

Red Land.

slide14
The Nile River cuts the eastern part

of the Sahara in two.

The land on the west side of the river

is called the Western Desert.

The land on the east side of the river is

called the Arabian Desert.

slide15
Farming in the Valley

Wealthy landowners controlled almost

all of the farmland.

Farmers rented and the owners

took part of the crop as payment.

Typical crops included wheat, barley,

onions, lettuce, and beans.

slide16
Farmers also raised cattle, goats, sheep,
  • and pigs for food.
    • Meat
    • Milk products – including cheese
    • Beef – mainly for the wealthy
    • Most could only afford beef for

special days, so they caught fish or

used nets to catch geese or ducks.

slide17
Plants and animals were important for

more than just food.

  • Fibers of flax plant – used to spin

linen thread

  • Sheep’s wool – woven into cloth
  • Leather – continers, sacks, shoes
  • Other plants – sandals, boxes,

tabletops

slide18
Think

Describe the Nile River.

Why was the flooding of the Nile River

so important to the Egyptians?

What is the difference between the Black Land and the Red Land?

How might Egypt have developed if the

Sahara had not dried and become a

desert?

slide19
Importance of ...

The Nile was know as the giver of life.

It united the populous of Egypt into one Nation-State.

the Nile River

slide20
Vocabulary

Nation-state

A region with a single

government and a united

group of people.

To be able to tell ahead of time.

predict

inundation

Yearly flood in Ancient Egypt.

slide21
Life after death

afterlife

nome

Towns that were capitals

of city-states.

slide22
Giver and Taker of Life
  • The Nile River affected all Egyptian
  • activities.
  • Farming
  • Religious Beliefs
  • Ways of Governing

The Nile was called the “Giver of

Life” and helped bring the people

together.

slide23
The Nile became a river highway.
  • Ancient Egyptians became expert

shipbuilders.

  • The first ships were made of reeds.
  • Later ships were made of wooden

planks,and some were 60 feet long.

  • Boats going downriver (north) could

use the strong current to travel.

  • Boats going upriver (south) used sails

to catch the steady north wind.

slide24
Concerns About the Nile
  • Light rains upriver - no overflow
  • Land baked in the sun – crops died
  • Too much rain at river’s source –

Wild flooding

  • Crops washed away
  • People and animals drowned
slide25
Source of Innovation
  • Common problems helped unite the
  • Ancient Egyptians.
  • They were able to predict when

the yearly floods (inundation) would

come.

  • To keep track of this event they

created a 365 day calendar based

on the sun.

slide26
Three Seasons

The Egyptians divided the year into three seasons based on the river’s actions.

Inundation – the start of the new

year

Emergence – land emerged from

beneath the water

Harvest – the time when crops were

ready

slide27
Inundation – The land was made new

by the rich silt left by

floodwaters.

Emergence – Farmers planted using

plows or hoes to create

furrows. They dropped

seeds and led cattle or

other animals through the

fields to push the seed

into the ground.

slide28
Harvest – The final season. In most

years farmers would have

a large crop.

Very little rain fell in Egypt.

The hot, dry climate was very harsh.

The Ancient Egyptians developed

irrigation so they could water their crops.

slide29
During Emergence they trapped water in ponds to use in case of drought.

They also built dams and dikes to hold back the river when there was too much flooding. Canals were built to carry excess water back to the river from the fields.

slide30
Source of Religion

The Ancient Egyptians believed in many

gods and used stories about them

to explain events in nature.

They believed the sun was a god

that was born each day and died

each night.

They believed religion was important to

their survival in the Nile River Valley.

slide31
Egyptian gods

god of wisdom

Thoth

Hathor

goddess of love

ruled over the dead

Orisis

god of the river

Hapi

Amon-Re

the sun god (most important)

slide32
Afterlife

The Egyptians prayed to their gods

and believed in life after death.

A book of prayers called The Book

of the Dead was placed in their tombs

To be used as a guide in the afterlife.

slide33
Unified Egypt

About 5000 B.C. small farming villages

grew up along the Nile.

As populations grew, villages became

towns.

Some towns became capitals of city-

states called nomes. Leaders of nomes

competed for wealth and power.

slide34
By around 3,500 B.C. the city-states

joined together forming two large

kingdoms.

The kingdoms were known as the “Two

Lands.”(Upper Egypt & Lower Egypt)

Around 3000 B.C. the Upper Egyptian

Kings had gained control of Lower

Egypt. Uniting Egypt marked the

Beginning of the world’s first nation-state,

which lasted for 3,000 years.

slide35
Who Really United the

Two Kingdoms?

No one really knows. Legend says

King Menes did. Some experts think

King Narmer did because in artwork

he is shown wearing a double crown

that combines the white crown

of Upper Egypt and the red

crown of Lower Egypt.

slide36
Think Time

How did the Nile bring

people together?

What did the Egyptians do to control

the river?

How did the Egyptians explain events

in nature?

Why was uniting Egypt important?

slide37
Early Egyptian Rule

3000 Years

Over 33 Dynasties

slide38
Vocabulary - Lesson 3

dynasty

A series of rulers

from the same family.

pharaoh

king

Important government

official, advisor

vizier

commands

decrees

slide39
Vocabulary - Lesson 3

hieroglyphics

Ancient system

Of writing using over

700 symbols

papyrus

Paper made from reeds that

grew along the Nile.

pyramid

A burial place for the dead

mummy

A preserved body

slide40
Egypt's Early Period
  • Egyptians called their kings “pharaoh.”
  • The word pharaoh means “great house”

and referred to the ruler’s palace.

  • Pharaoh had total authority and was

believed to be the son of Re, the sun

god.

  • Pharaoh was believed to be a link

between man and the gods.

slide41
Why did the Egyptian civilization last so long?
  • The pharaoh was obeyed without

question.

  • The structure of the government

didn’t change.

  • Viziers carried out the pharaoh’s

decrees and took care of running

the government.

  • There were many officials to help

govern Egypt.

slide42
Officials collected taxes, planned

building projects, and enforced

laws.

slide43
How do we know about the early kings?
  • Egyptians left written records.
  • They developed hieroglyphics, a

system of writing.

  • more than 700 symbols
  • most stood for sounds
  • some stood for whole

words or ideas

slide44
Scribes studied for years to learn

hieroglyphics.

  • They also learned math.
  • A scribe’s job often involved tax

collecting and record keeping.

  • They wrote on stone and on papyrus.
  • Books were scrolls – rolls of papyrus

joined end-to-end. Some were over

100 feet long.

  • Scribes recorded Egyptian history.
slide45
Three Main Divisions of Egyptian History

The Old Kingdom

2625 to 2130 B.C.

Great achievements in building

Intermediate period

The Middle Kingdom

1980 to 1630 B.C.

Changes in government, trade expanded,

changes in society

Intermediate period

1539 to 1075 B.C.

The New Kingdom

First full time army, empire expanded

slide46
The Old Kingdom
  • Dynasties 4- 8 ruled
  • Pharaohs began to look outside of

Egypt for resources

  • Colony started in Nubia
  • Traders sent south in Africa to find

incense oils, ebony, ivory, & other

items

  • Trade in Asia – cedar wood & silver
slide47
Old Kingdom - Age of Pyramids
  • Largest stone buildings in the world
  • Built as a burial place for the dead
  • Pyramids built for rulers and other

important people

  • Egyptians believed they would need

their bodies in the afterlife.

slide48
Are You My Mummy?
  • Preserving a body took about 70 days
  • All internal organs removed except the

heart

  • Organs placed in canopic jars
  • Heart – believed to be the home of the

soul

  • Body covered with natron –a kind of

salt

  • Natron absorbed the water in the body
slide49
Body was rubbed with special oils &

wrapped in linen cloth

  • Everything that a person might need

was placed in the tomb with the body.

slide50
Where Did My Mummy Go ?

The Egyptians believed the soul

appeared before the god Osiris and

a group of judges.

The dead person’s heart was

placed on one side of a

scale and a feather (the

feather of truth) was placed

on the other side.

slide51
A balanced scale meant the soul would
  • live forever.
  • An unbalanced scale meant the soul
  • was heavy with sin.
  • Egyptians believed the sinful soul
  • would be eaten by an animal that
  • was part crocodile, lion, and

hippopotamus.

slide52
The Pyramids

Imhotep, architect for King Zoser, built

the first stone tomb – a step pyramid.

Egyptians believed that pharaoh went to

Live with Amon-Re, their most powerful

God.

The step pyramid may have been

Imhotep’s way to help the king “climb the

stairway to heaven.”

slide53
The best known pyramids were built at

Giza beginning in about 2600 B.C.

The largest pyramid was built for

Pharaoh Khufu.

The citizens of Egypt had to pay a

labor tax by working for the government.

As many as 10,000 farmers worked on

the pyramids during inundation.

slide54
Workers cut and moved more than 2

million stone blocks.

Each block weighed about 5,000 pounds.

The blocks were probably moved on

sleds.

The Great Pyramid of Khufu is about

480 feet high and covers 13 acres.

slide55
Egyptian Way of Life

Clothing –

Women – long sleeveless dresses

made of linen

Men – knee-length linen skirts with

or without short-sleeved shirts

Men & Women wore jewelry and makeup

Wealthy often wore fancy wigs

slide56
Houses – made of mud brick & had a

shrine for worship of household gods

Farmers worked for the government

during inundation.

Men – artists, carpenters, builders,

stonecutters – worked 10 days,

off 1 day

They listened to music, sang, & danced

at religious festivals & parties.

women in charge of household matters didn t hold government jobs
Women - in charge of household matters, didn’t hold government jobs

Some women were craft workers.

Most weavers were women.

Women could own property and had

full legal rights.

slide58
Children were seen as gifts from the gods.

They played games such as leap frog,

tug-of-war, and wrestling.

Education –

Girls learned weaving & household skills from their mothers.

Boys learned their father’s trade.

Upper class children learned math,

literature, and writing.

slide59
Use Your Brain

Who controlled the land and people of

ancient Egypt?

Why did the Egyptians preserve their

dead?

How did the Egyptian government get

workers to build the pyramids?

What were the periods between the

three main kingdoms called?

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