January 2002Bush and North Korea • After 9-11, Bush branded North Korea as part of “Axis of Evil.” • Bush accused North Korea of seeking WMD and vowed to prevent North Korea from acquiring such weapons.
October, 2002 – January 2003Collapse of Agreed Framework • U.S. accused North Korea of having covert program to enrich uranium and stops supplying oil to North Korea. • North Korea’s response: • Expelled IAEA inspectors • Withdrew from NPT. • Restarted plutonium reactor at Yongbyon it had shut down in 1994.
October, 2006North Korea Conducts Nuclear Weapons Test • North Korea conducted underground test of a small nuclear device. • UN Security Council imposed significant economic sanctions in unanimous vote.
2003-2007Six Party Talks Involved: • North Korea • U.S. • Russia • China • South Korea • Japan Goal: Peaceful resolution of stand-off with North Korea Results: No progress until 2007
2007 Breakthrough NK Agrees to End Nuclear Weapons Program • Tentative agreement with reached with North Korea. • NK agreed to dismantle its nuclear weapons program by the end of the year. • NK’s plutonium reactor at Yongbyon shut down and IAEA inspectors permitted to return.
2007 AgreementBush’s Response • Lifted some U.S. sanctions • on North Korea. • Removed NK from list of state sponsors of terrorism. • Agreed to move towards • normalization of relations.
2008Collapse of 2007 Agreement • Negotiations over the dismantling of NK’s nuclear weapons program collapsed in 2008 before Bush left office. • NK rejected verification measures insisted on by the U.S.
2009 Obama’s Attempt at Engagement • Obama administration announced it was prepared to engage in direct talks with North Korea once North Korea ended its nuclear weapons program. • NK dismissed offer as “useless.” • NK also demanded U.S. normalize relations before it abandoned its nuclear weapons.
Obama’s First Year in Office (2009)A Year of Rising Tensions Actions taken by North Korea: • Quit six party talks. • Restarted plutonium reactor • Expelled UN inspectors again. • Declared it was enriching uranium. • Conducted long-range missile test. • Conducted second nuclear test . • Threatened to expand nuclear arsenal. World reaction to NK test
North Korea’s Missile Program • NK has over 1,000 missiles of various ranges. • Sells missiles and technology overseas, with Iran being the largest buyer. • Has conducted several tests of a long-range missile that could possibly strike the U.S.
2009Obama’s Response • Renewed U.S. sanctions. and pushed for stronger UN sanctions. • Said U.S. would offer no new incentives. • Called on North Korea to suspend nuclear activities and return to Six Party Talks. Obama's response to NK nuclear test Obama condemns North Korea
2009UN Security Council Response • Unanimously condemned NK’s second nuclear test and its test of a long-range missile. • Resolution barred NK from conducting any missile or nuclear tests. • Additional sanctions were imposed, including a new arms embargo.
2010: Rising Tensions Between the Koreas North Korea Torpedoes South Korean Warship • South Korea accused North Korea of sinking one of its warships, killing 46 sailors. • South Korea cut off all trade with the North. • North Korea denied sinking ship and cut off all ties with South Korea. South Korean warship Cheonan
2010: Rising Tensions Between the Koreas North Korea Shells South Korean Island • North Korea fired dozens of artillery shells at a South Korean controlled island near their disputed border in Yellow Sea. • Attack killed two South Korean soldiers. Obama's Reaction to NK Attack on SK
2010Obama Softens Position • Offered to restart stalled talks if North Korea showed it was serious about ending its nuclear weapons program. • Said U.S. and other nations were ready to offer economic aid if North Korea gave up its nuclear weapons.
December, 19, 2011Death of Kim Jong Il ABC News Report on Kim Jong Il's Death (2:13) BBC Report on Kim JongIls Death
China’s Relationship with North Korea • China is NK’s only real ally. • China wants North Korea to end its “reckless” quest for nuclear weapons, however. Why? (THINK GEOPOLITICALLY!) Fears that South Korea and Japan will develop nuclear weapons of their own.
China and North Korea • China has limited influence over North Korea, which refuses to listen to China at times. • China reluctant to punish North Korea. Why? Fears economic collapse of North Korea and problems that could create: • Refugees flooding to China.
“The truth is that North Korea is an irrelevant bit player in this whole drama. The real player here is China. They have helped North Korea at every step, and North Korea's regime cannot survive at all without their ongoing food and fuel aid. Kim Jong-Il's nuclear plans may be slightly inconvenient to the Chinese -- just not inconvenient enough to derail a strategy that still promises net plusses to those pursuing it within China's dictatorship.”-Joe Katzman
February, 2012U.S. and North Korea Held New Talks • Two days of direct talks in China. • First talks between U.S. and North Korea after Kim Jong-Un assumed power. • No concrete results until North Koreans returned home. Then…
February 29, 2012New Agreement Announced • North Korea announced it would: • Suspend uranium enrichment. • Suspend nuclear weapons tests. • Suspend long-range missile tests. • Allow IAEA inspections to return. • U.S. agreed to ship tons of food aid to North Korea in return.