COMMUTATIVE: The relationship of one individual to another individual Pertains to contractual relationships between individuals and institutions that have the legal status of a person (i.e. corporations: e.g. associations, retail stores, schools, religious communities etc.) Purchasing an item of clothes: the price of the item remains the same whether you are rich or not—retailer does not make distinctions Society is built on trust in the word that is given to another—without it society slides into anarchy (may take the form of shoplifting, inflated invoices, theft, etc.)
LEGAL: The relationship of the individual to society or the state Used to be concerned primarily with the individual’s obedience to the laws of the state—now refers also to what the individual in society can contribute to the life of society beyond merely keeping the law (therefore also known as contributive justice). We are expected to participate in creating laws that benefit society; accept the right to vote and also the obligation to vote; participate in recycling programs; etc.
DISTRIBUTIVE: The relationship of society or the government to in individual Deals with all sorts of goods that are not economic—dilemma of unequal distribution and basic equality Goods are: citizenship (immigration policy, acceptance of refugees, voting rights, etc.) security and public assistance (welfare, health care, limits to law that protect the individual’s right to privacy) economic good (salaries, stock market and banking, consumer goods, private property) persons have a value but not a price—is it permissible to patent life forms (DNA, genetically modified seeds, stem cells) offices and positions (not based solely on heredity or wealth but on qualifications set by public procedures)
LIVING JUSTLYPope Paul VI stated that justice is “love’s minimum requirement.” JUSTICE striving to ensure the well-being of others as well as ourselves INJUSTICE both the lack of concern for, and the violation of the well-being of others or oneself
Why seek justice? All of God’ creation is GOOD, and therefore has WORTH! RIGHTS are needed for our well-being, and they apply to all of God’s creation. Rights also imply our obligation to respect the rights of others and of creation itself.
SURVIVAL RIGHTS • basic needs, such as food, shelter, water, basic health care, and nurturing our young
THRIVAL RIGHTS • things needed to foster the full potential of God’s creation, such as respect, privacy, freedom of speech, religious liberty, education, meaningful work and time for recreation
INDIVIDUAL JUSTICE concerned with obligations between individuals , fairness and respect in one-to-one relationships
SOCIAL JUSTICE concerned with obligations that individuals within subgroups have toward their own community, the larger society and the world as a whole
DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE concerned with obligations that the society has toward all its members, and the role of governments, corporations, communities and individuals in the just distribution of society’s resources
ECOLOGICAL JUSTICEconcerned with obligations that human beings have to all the rest of creation
Justice is closely related to the works of compassion, which are of central importance to the life of a Christian. What are my obligations to ensure that justice will prevail? These are also known as the “Corporal Works of Mercy” • to feed the hungry • to give drink to the thirsty • to clothe the naked • to visit the imprisoned • to shelter the homeless • to visit the sick • to bury the dead
What are my obligations to ensure that justice will prevail? Continued… These are also known as the “Spiritual Works of Mercy” to admonish the sinner to instruct the ignorant to counsel the doubtful to comfort the sorrowful to forgive injuries to bear wrongs patiently to pray for the living and the dead
Major themes from Catholic Social TeachingThe following ten principles highlight major themes from Catholic social teaching documents of the last century. Office for Social Justice, Archdiocese of St. Paul and Minneapolis,http://www.osjspm.org/cst/themes.htm
Dignity of the Human Person • All people are sacred, made in the image and likeness of God. • People do not lose dignity because of disability, poverty, age, lack of success, or race. • This emphasizes people over things, being over having. • This principle is the foundation for the Church's promotion of respect for human life.
Common Good and Community • The human person is both sacred and social. • We realize our dignity and rights in relationship with others, in community. • Human beings grow and achieve fulfillment in community. • All people have a right and a duty to participate in society, seeking together the common good and well-being of all. • The family is a central social institution that must be supported and strengthened.
Rights and Responsibilities • People have a fundamental right to life, food, shelter, health care, education and employment. • All people have a right to participate in decisions that affect their lives. • Corresponding to these rights are duties and responsibilities. • For example, all persons have a duty to respect the rights of others in society. • All persons have a responsibility to participate in social and political activities and institutions that promote the common good.
Option for the Poor • The moral test of a society is how it treats its most vulnerable members. • The poor have the most urgent moral claim on the conscience of the nation. • We are called to look at public policy decisions in terms of how they affect the poor. • The "option for the poor," is not an adversarial slogan that pits one group or class against another. • Rather it states that the deprivation and powerlessness of the poor wounds the whole community.
Global Solidarity and Development • We are one human family. • Our responsibilities to each other cross national, racial, economic and ideological differences. • We are called to work globally for justice. • Authentic development must be full human development. • It must respect and promote personal, social, economic, and political rights, including the rights of nations and of peoples. • It must avoid the extremists of underdevelopment on the one hand, and "superdevelopment" on the other. • Accumulating material goods, and technical resources will be unsatisfactory and debasing if there is no respect for the moral, cultural, and spiritual dimensions of the person.
Promotion of Peace and Disarmament • Catholic teaching understands peace as a positive, action-oriented concept. • Peace is not just the absence of war. • It involves mutual respect and collaboration between peoples and nations. • There is a close relationship between peace and justice. • Peace is the fruit of justice and is dependent upon right order among human beings and human institutions.
Stewardship of God's Creation • The goods of the earth are gifts from God, and they are intended by God for the benefit of everyone. • There is a "social mortgage" that guides our use of the world's goods, and we have a responsibility to care for these goods as stewards and trustees, not as mere consumers and users. • How we treat the environment is a measure of our stewardship, a sign of our respect for the Creator.
Dignity of Work and the Rights of Workers • The economy exists to serve people, not the other way around. • People have a right to productive work and fair wages. • Workers have the right to a safe working conditions, the right to participate in decisions that affect them in the workplace, and the right to security in case of sickness, disability, unemployment or old age. • All workers have the right to form unions. In fact, unions are referred to in the teaching as an "indispensable" element in the search for social justice.
Role of Government and Subsidiarity • The state has a positive moral function. It is an instrument to promote human dignity, protect human rights, and build the common good. • All people have a right and a responsibility to participate in political institutions so that government can achieve its proper goals. • The principle of subsidiarity holds that the functions of government should be performed at the lowest level possible, as long as they can be performed adequately. • When the needs in question cannot adequately be met at the lower level, then it is not only necessary, but imperative that higher levels of government intervene.
Free Markets, Economic Initiative, and Private Property • Catholic teaching opposes collectivist and statist economic approaches. • But it also rejects the notion that a free market automatically produces justice. • Distributive justice, for example, cannot be achieved by relying entirely on free market forces. • Competition and free markets are useful elements of economic systems. • However, markets must be kept within limits, because there are many needs and goods that cannot be satisfied by the market system. • It is the task of the state and of all society to intervene and ensure that these needs are met. • All people have a right to participate in the economy, the right to economic initiative and to private property; but these are not unlimited rights. • No one is allowed to amass excessive wealth when others lack the basic necessities of life.
82% of the world’s wealth is owned by 20% of the world’s population, represented by Group 1 • The upper middle class, which controls 10% of the world’s wealth is represented by Group 2. • 2.3% of the world’s wealth is shared by 20% of the world (Group 3) • 1.9% of the world’s wealth is shared by the next 20% (Group 4) • 1.4% of the world’s wealth is shared by the poorest 20% (Group 5)