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Historical Evolution of Design in Industrial Arts/Technology Education. Technology Education Seminar EDVT-5424 Donnie S. Coleman 22 October 2001. Reference Search.

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historical evolution of design in industrial arts technology education

Historical Evolution of Design in Industrial Arts/Technology Education

Technology Education Seminar


Donnie S. Coleman

22 October 2001

reference search
Reference Search
  • “Design is that area of human experience, skill, and knowledge which is concerned with man’s ability to mold his environment to suit his material and spiritual needs.” B. Archer, 1973
  • Notable Designers: Leonardo Da Vinci, Frank Lloyd Wright, Buckminster Fuller, Pierre Cardin, Gucci, Calvin Klein, ...
renaissance era
Renaissance Era
  • Natural Philosophy of Decartes, Leibnitz, and Rousseau advocated ‘natural processes’
  • Johann Pestalozzi, Swiss Educational reformer
    • Neuhoff Industrial School in 1774
    • Goal: lessening of the poverty and discontent in the world by educating the poorer children of Switzerland
    • Manual processes of general education
    • Promotes both livelihood and intellectual development.
pestalozzi s precepts
Pestalozzi’s Precepts
  • Desire to improve conditions of poor children in Switzerland
  • Such improvement must come through education to be permanent.
  • Schools should directly prepare children for life in the home
  • Dedication to Rousseau’s doctrine of education according to nature
  • The manual labors of children could be applied to the cost of education
  • Employment of objects and manual activities as a method of teaching traditional subjects.
  • Established both academic and trade schools using Pestalozzi’s methodology.
  • Academic school was comprehensive , not specifically vocational
  • Trade school made no attempt toward a liberal education, but emphasized skilled craftsmanship.
  • Manual activities seen as important elements to the education of children.
russian system
Russian System
  • Imperial Technical School, Moscow, 1868.
    • Victor Della Vos, Director.
  • Analytical treatment of processes and methods
  • Provided specific answers to the questions:
    • What does a person need to know to do a specific job?
    • What steps of a procedure are necessary?
    • What other related knowledge must accompany the manipulative instruction?
    • What is the best method of teaching this subject?
russian system methodology
Russian System Methodology
  • Shop operations resolved into elementary operations and taught sequentially.
  • No emphasis on construction of useful articles
  • Taught in instructional shops prior to exposing students to the construction shops
  • Systematic and efficient instruction of large numbers of students.
  • Student progress easily evaluated.
  • Strong impact on the teaching of IA/TE
sloyd system
Sloyd System
  • Swedish: Sloyd means dexterity, manual skill, or artistic skill.
  • Traditional house sloyd refers to traditional Scandanavian home crafts, handcrafted items produced for domestic industry.
  • No connection at all with the idea of preparation for a particular trade.
sloyd schools
Sloyd Schools
  • Industrialization in the 19th century removed the impetus to make hand crafted goods.
  • Availability of chemical dyes, yarns, and machines lead to a general decline in quality.
  • Loss of knowledge of older techniques and materials a widespread phenomenon, not just in Scandanavia.
  • Establishment of sloyd schools to preserve the tradition of hand skills and craftsmanship.
  • Items produced were sold - determined by demand, not necessarily educational value.
sloyd in schools
Sloyd in Schools
  • Uno Cygnaeus, Finnish Lutheran preacher/teacher
  • Sloyd in primary school as part of formal education
  • No emphasis placed on analysis or design, but used cultural tradition as the basis for craft objects.
  • Course content involved making common household objects of increasing difficulty.
  • Introduction of analysis by Otto Salomon at the sloyd school in Naas, Sweden was the birth of educational sloyd.
salomon s objectives
Salomon’s Objectives
  • To instill a taste for, and a love of, labor in general;
  • To instill respect for rough, honest, bodily labor;
  • To develop independence and self-reliance;
  • To train habits of order, exactness, cleanliness, and neatness;
  • To train the eye and sense of form; to cultivate dexterity of hand and develop touch; (Possible first trace of design?)
  • To cultivate habits of attention, industry, perseverance, and patience;
  • To promote the development of the physical powers;
  • To directly give dexterity in the use of tools;
  • To execute exact work.
educational sloyd methodology
Educational Sloyd Methodology
  • The instruction must go from easy to difficult
  • The instruction must go from simple to complex
  • The instruction must go from the known to the unknown
  • The teaching must lay a good foundation.
  • The teacher should possess educational tact.
  • The teaching should be interesting in character.
  • The instruction should be intuitive in its character: i.e., it should be given as far as possible through the senses, especially touch and sight.
  • The teaching should be individual in character.
sloyd methodology cont
Sloyd Methodology (cont)
  • The instructor should be a teacher and not a mere craftsmen.
  • The models must be useful from the child’s standpoint.
  • The work should not involve fatiguing preparatory exercises.
  • The work must afford variety.
  • The children must be capable of doing the work themselves.
  • The impact of sloyd education was profound, in both purpose and methodology.
  • Teachers from around the world came to Sweden to receive training in educational handcraft methods.
manual training
Manual Training
  • Established in late 19th century as a method of meeting the demands of society and the students by incorporating manual methods into general education.
  • Objective: to offer in addition to college preparatory work, trade-related courses.
  • New type of school an immediate popular success.
  • General high schools came to add manual training courses to their curricula, a break away from tradition and acceptance of a new theory of education.
  • John Ordway of MIT imported part of the sloyd system into the U.S. Models as the basis for projects discarded in favor of drawings.
manual arts
Manual Arts
  • Prior to 1890 there is little evidence of concern for esthetics in trade or manual training.
  • Experimentation with the basic tenets of Russian and Sloyd systems lead to divergent views in manual training.
  • Preservation activities for sloyd and other traditions lead to development of design institutes.
  • The term Manual Arts arose around 1893 with the emphasis upon creative design as an integral part of manual training.
  • The first appearance of Design as a major component of industrial education.
manual arts methodology
Manual Arts Methodology
  • Design as integral part of instruction
  • Melding of technical skill with sensitivity to form and function.
  • Student involvement in design as well as manufacture
  • The Project was the goal and the tool skills and knowledge were a means to an end.
  • Study of media an processes as a basis of instruction, rather than industrial origin.
industrial arts
Industrial Arts
  • Name change suggested by Charles Richards, Columbia University in 1904
  • New program adopted features significant movements
    • Russian System -- apply analytical methods to organizing teachable content derived from industry
    • Swedish Sloyd -- the theory of manual subjects as part of general education and as a craftwork tradition
    • Manual Training -- a sound course of study, occupational guidance, and vocational concepts
    • Manual Arts -- concerns for Design, handcrafts, student involvement in project planning, and production of useful articles.
    • All pursued for general educational purpose.
technology education
Technology Education
  • Name change form IA to TE around 1984
  • ITEA Standards for Technological Literacy
    • Design mentioned in 3 of the 5 categories
    • Standard 8: The attributes of design
    • Standard 9: Engineering design.
    • Standard 10 The role of troubleshooting, R&D, invention, and innovation in problem solving.
    • Standard 11: Apply the design process.
  • Design content was explicitly stated at the origin of the Manual Arts movement.
  • Expanded to major components of Technology Education
where to get more information
Where to get more information
  • Design Education in Schools; Bernard Aylward
  • Designing today’s manufactured products, John R. Lindbeck
  • Practical Guide to Industrial Arts Education, John R. Lindbeck
  • Standards for Technological Literacy, ITEA
  • Comments, Questions, Discussion