Technology in Arts Education Ruth Currey ARE 6666 – Arts Advocacy
The Motivation • As an art teacher who also teaches computer animation, I have seen the impact • technology has had in the arts and how the arts audience has been expanded • by the introduction of technology into the field. • Unfortunately, I have also seen how technology integration can be • misunderstood and ignored because of the lack of information and standards • to support proper implementation • The Problem • There are no current policies that incorporate technology into the Pre K -20 • curriculum • Technology standards that exist accommodate the technology integration into • core subjects such as language arts, mathematics, and the sciences • When technology is added to arts standards, it typically replaces the word • media and is never specifically defined “Art challenges technology and the technology inspires the art.”
Considerations SECAC Mission Statement #1 (2004) Promote excellence and equity in comprehensive visual arts education for all people, beginning with pre-K – 16 education, leading to career opportunities as well as life-long learning in schools, colleges, universities, museums, and cultural and community activities. Sunshine State Standards • The word “technology” is not seen once within the standards set up for • the arts • All use of technology in the classroom is implied based on the • standards • Teachers using technology have to try to make their curriculum • fit into small ill-equipped frameworks designed with the tactile • arts in mind Adaptations have been made to the Sunshine State Standards to demonstrate how the standards imply the use of technology (UCF / ITRC) These attempts are still vague and do not address the actual needs of the technology
Technology and the Florida Sunshine State Standards • Instructional Technology Resource Center (ITRC) @ UCF • The Arts • Understand the ways various media can be used to reinforce, enhance or • alter a dance idea • Uses technology to enhance a movement study • Uses unified production concepts and techniques for various media • Uses scientific and technological advances to develop visual and aural • staging elements that complement the interpretation of a text • Applied Technology Standards • University of South Florida • Applies planning methods to decision-making related to life and work roles. • Integrates academic and applied technology principles into the workplace. • Applies appropriate technology to an industry to solve technical and • production problems. • Analyzes and communicates the impact that industry and the community • have on each other and on the individual. • Employs management techniques to manage projects and enterprises • related to work and life roles.
Artistic Equity - SECAC Providing ALL students the opportunity to express themselves creatively “Many art teachers are stuck in the old-school curriculum of teaching the elements and principles of art via drawing, painting, and ceramics. They unintentionally discourage many students who may not appear to be artistic– because they can only draw a stick figure– from taking art.” (Ash, 2008, p.1) • According to the 2004 SECAC Policy Mission Statement: • Promote excellence and equity in comprehensive visual arts education for all people If we expect equity through a subject that embraces diversity, how can we ensure that each student is getting an equal opportunity to express themselves? If we limit the vehicles and types of art that students are exposed to, does that not hinder their right to have the opportunity to express themselves freely? Can it be assumed that since students who create work solely by means of computers that they are not considered artists and therefore should not have the same equitable time with their medium?
Informal Research • A brief survey was given to approximately 100 animation students asking them to discuss how • they feel about technology and its relationship to art. Some of the questions provided include: • Do you consider yourself an artist? • Using your abilities, do you feel you can draw equally well using traditional mediums? • If animation/graphic design we not available, what other classes would you take? • Do you feel your expressive needs are being met by these alternate classes? • Do you feel these classes will teach you the same skills as your technology based art • classes? Results indicated that approximately 72% of the students considered themselves to be artists. Of those 72%, 68% of them felt they would not be able to achieve equal success with traditional mediums Results also indicated that the majority of the students (approximately 83%) felt that they would take electives outside of the arts if technology based art programs were not available because they do not feel they would be successful in a traditional class
SECAC Adjustments 1c. Encourage broad audience development through the visual and digital arts by comprehensive programs that incorporate contemporary and relevant issues in art, new technological advances in art, and by active collaboration between public and private organizations, including community based resources, museums, corporations, government agencies, and pre K – 20 schools. 2a. Strive for more collaborative policy involvement and initiatives between higher education institutions, recognizing that research in art education and technological innovation are vital links between the visual arts, humanities, social/natural sciences, and mathematics. Implementation Art Education faculty should have access and be encouraged to attend appropriate technology based trainings on arts integration and implementation in order to provide a more equitable environment in a contemporary setting. Support systems, both live and virtual must be established and maintained in order to accommodate the needs of the technological considerations, but also the needs and concerns of educators Dissemination 3. Develop and maintain electronic means to share library and teacher resources and image databases at SECAC member institutions with public school students, either on-site or electronically.
Proposed Sunshine State Standards for Technology Based Arts Education Once adjustments are made to the SECAC Policy Statement that establish the necessity of technology, a set of Sunshine State Standards needs to be created in order to accommodate technological needs within the art classroom • Adjusted standards based on considerations from the following: • Current Visual Arts Sunshine State Standards • Education World National Technology Standards • University of Central Florida ITRC Technology Standards • University of South Florida Applied Technology Standards • Some standards are the same or similar to the original Sunshine State Standards • for the Visual Arts because they maintain their integrity and relevance to include • technology based arts as well as the visual arts. The ultimate goal is to avoid the basic replacement of the word media with the word technology and instead provide a starting point for the creation of a set of standards to integrate and implement technology into the art classroom.
Operations, Skills, and Techniques The student understands and applies techniques and processes to technology based media (DA.A.1.4) 1. Uses static and kinetic two-dimensional and three-dimensional media, techniques, tools, and processes to communicate an idea or concept based on technology-based research, environment, personal experience, observation, media exposure, or imagination. 2. Demonstrates an understanding of the tools, media, processes, and techniques necessary to proficiently use technology in a safe and responsible manner. 3. Understands how the elements of art and the principles of design can be combined in order to solve specific graphic and kinetic visual problems in a three dimensional space. 4. Uses effective control of media, techniques, and tools when communicating an idea in both static graphic imagery and two-dimensional and three-dimensional kinetic works.
Boxes with Fires: Wisely Integrating Learning Technologies into the Art Classroom By Diane C. Gregory Art Education, 62(3) 2009, pp. 47 – 54. “Art teachers typically use established computer technologies as teaching or Presentation tools rather than facilitating students’ creative production and Thinking, collaborative learning, problem-solving, and higher order thinking.” (Gregory, 2009, p. 48) • Educators understand the value of putting artmaking tools within the hands of each • Student • Technology is not always considered an artmaking tool and is ignored when • considering artmaking options • Technology tends to be expensive, but can be reused by multiple students • over the course of the day • Art educators wish to promote creative risk-taking ventures where students are • allowed to experiment, practice, and in some cases fail in order to succeed • Cost of materials increases to compensate for mistakes and remade • work • Technology allows for more opportunities to practice skills without the • fear of increased costs for supplies or having to start from scratch
Productivity and Communication The student creates and communicates a range of subject matter, symbols, and ideas using knowledge of structures and processes of technology-based arts. (DA.B.1.4) 1. Applies various subjects, symbols, and ideas in works of digital art. 2. Understands that static and kinetic media formats can communicate information and ideas effectively through the use of specific techniques and processes. 3. Understands the basic implications and intentions of print and kinetic media and the purposes within each particular work. 4. knows how the elements of art and principles of design can enhance productivity and promote creativity by solving static and kinetic graphic problems
Implications for Art Education in the Third Millennium: Art Technology Integration By Sherry Mayo Art Education, 60(3) 2007, pp. 45-51. “Art educators have the unique opportunity to integrate studio practice with technology that can help lead the way in teaching with technology and crossing boundaries between real-world materials and digital media.” (Mayo, 2007, p. 50) Article Proposes: There are those who are afraid of computer art taking over the traditional forms all together if allowed to integrate into the art classrooms Although the artists have the option to use traditional formats or digital formats the need for artists is growing in our modern society The fact that the world is changing rapidly between moments, the arts need to embrace their advantages over the other content areas and utilize the technology at their disposal Artists, both digital and traditional are similar to researchers in that they create new knowledge through studio practice
Historical, Social, and Human Connections The student understand the digital arts in relation to history and contemporary multicultural society (DA.C.1.4) 1. Understands and recognizes how visual arts have directly affected, or influenced necessary changes in technological advances 2. Understands how technology based art has inspired and furthered possibilities available to the visual arts through historical and contemporary collaboration. 3. Understands how social, cultural, ecological, economic, religious, and political conditions influence the function, meaning, and execution of works of digital arts, advertising, and animation. 4. Practices responsible and ethical use of technology based media, information, and software for research and productivity
Art Education Aims in the Age of New Media: Moving Toward Global Civil Society By Elizabeth M. Delacruz Art Education, 62(5) September 2009, pp. 13-18 “One only has to observe the media-savvy youth of today to be inspired to want to help shape young peoples’ understandings and uses of new digital technologies.” (Delacruz, 2009, p. 16) Educators have long called for an art education curriculum that facilitates contemporary understandings of the complexities of art and culture, democracy, multicultural and intercultural education, humanness, and civil society New technologies facilitate and promote new forms of creative expression and inquiry about diverse art and other forms of creative cultural expression Art Education finds a good fit with new digital media, particularly with our affinity for art making, design, aesthetic inquiry, interpretation, and open-ended learning because of their eclectic nature and access to creative endeavors “Art education is an inconclusive and contested arena, with competing demands and prescriptions for reform in the 21st century.” (Delacruz, 2009, p. 16)
Aesthetic and Critical Research Analysis The student discusses, evaluates, and responds to the components and implications of technology based artworks. (DA.D.1.4) 1. Understands and determines the differences between the artist’s intent and public interpretation through evaluative criteria and judgment. 2. Understands critical and aesthetic statements in terms of historical reference while researching technological innovations and their implications to the visual arts. 3. Determines the difference between the intentions of artists in the creation of original works and the intentions of individuals and companies who appropriate and parody those works. 4. Uses technology to locate, collect and evaluate pertinent information regarding historical and contemporary issues in art efficiently 5. Uses technology to evaluate accuracy and credibility of contemporary sources of information and research data. 6. Researches new technological advances and their implications and processes in order to accurately evaluate productivity and effective use of technological innovations.
Expanding Arts Education in a Digital Age By Haeryun Choi and Joseph Piro Arts Education Policy Review, 110(3), 2009, pp. 27-34 “Arts education policymakers who will shape twenty-first-century policy must keep an eye on trend lines and focus their efforts to recognize that the arts will be not only desirable in helping us negotiate the digital age, but indispensible.” (Choi, 2009, p. 32) • Strong need for research databases and digital infrastructures for research • and searchable media • Digital resources should be considered on the same plane as textbooks • Encourages a culture of innovation and appreciation of aesthetic theory • Masterpieces of art should be considered from multiple perspectives • Introduces students to aesthetic perception • Pays systematic attention to sensory, formal, technical, and expressive • properties • Enhances and encourages creative expression and personal reflection • Introducing digital work through humanities bridges the gap between • traditional and contemporary perspectives • Maintains a level of relevancy is technology and art grow together • rather than as separate entities • Demonstrates and encourages higher order thinking by supporting • collaboration • Imaginative skills and creativity are as essential as cognitive skills
Real World Applications The student makes direct connections between up-to-date technology, the visual arts, and their application to the real world. (DA.E.1.4) 1. Knows and participates in community-based technology based art experiences as an artist or observer. 2. Understands and identifies the skills that digital artists use in various careers to across multiple artistic platforms to promote creativity, fluency, flexibility, and collaboration within both the digital arts and visual arts. 3. Uses multiple facets of technology to connect and communicate with the public, the consumer, and the artistic community regarding aesthetic concerns and questions, entertainments potential and responsibility, research and resources accessibility and their impact on education requirements for potential career opportunities. 4. Uses technology resources for solving problems and making informed decisions in regards to both static graphic arts and kinetic two and three dimensional digital works.
Technology as Arts-Based Education: Does the Desktop Reflect the Arts? By Peter Gouzouasis Arts Education Policy Review, 107(5) 2006, pp. 3-9. “Art is the queen of all sciences communicating knowledge to all of the generations of the world.” – Leonardo da Vinci (Gouzouasis, 2006, p. 8) Problems Proposed • Suggests that not all technology can be grouped into the same category • Some technology is designed for the sciences and business • Some technology is based on creative expression • Emphasis on Real-World Applications • Industry decision makers who hire designers for Web Designs do not just • hire someone who can push a mouse, the mechanics are simply not good • enough • Art and Technology are in a constant argument over which is more important • The arts struggle to achieve status as a core area of study while the • technologies struggle to receive respect from the arts community
Technology as Arts-Based Education: Does the Desktop Reflect the Arts? By Peter Gouzouasis Considerations Since technology has different categories the language of policies should specify Real world situations require knowledge of not only technological processes, but also artistic understanding and aesthetic values Digital media requires artistic viewpoints and legitimately belongs in an art based environment Outside of arts education, the impact of technology on the arts has been monumental both in its impact on access to the arts and as an emerging medium The arts and technologies can work together and not against each other to achieve a sustainable and viable future in the realm of education “In the same way as artists think of tools as extensions of the human mind, so should we begin to think of digital media. When used artistically and to our advantage, technologies are helpful.” (Gouzouasis, 2006, p. 8)
Dissemination Flyers, Brochures, and PDF files can be sent out to inform the public as well as policymakers, and educators about the benefits of creating new standards for the integration of technology into the art classrooms By exposing a large audience to the potential opportunities to be gained through technology integration and by having a set of standards ready to be submitted for approval, the likelihood of increasing support increases Trainings need to be offered to educate and introduce educators to the potential benefits of integration
References Ash, K. (2008). Digital Approach to Art Education Gains Momentum. Retrieved October 10, 2009, from Ed Week’s Digital Directions Website: http://www.edweek.org/dd/ articles/2008/06/05/04artsidebar_web.h01.html. Brewer, T. (2005). Revising the SECAC Visual Arts Education Policy Statement: Putting Teeth Into It. Arts Education Policy Review, 106(5), pp. 21-27. Choi, H. (2009). Expanding Arts Education in a Digital Age. Arts Education Policy Review, 110(3), pp. 27-34. Delacruz, E. (2009). Art Education Aims in the Age of New Media: Moving Toward Global Civil Society. Art Education, 62(5), pp. 13-18. Gouzouasis, P. (2006). Technology as Arts-Based Education: Does the Desktop Reflect the Arts? Arts Education Policy Review, 107(5), pp. 3-9. Gregory, D. (2009). Boxes with Fires: Wisely Integrating Learning Technologies into the Art Classroom. Art Education, 62(3), pp. 47-54.
References • Mayo, S. (2007). Implications for Art Education in the Third Millennium: Art Technology • Integration. Art Education, 60(3), pp. 45-51. • University of Central Florida. (2008). Technology and the Florida Sunshine State • Standards. Retrieved October 20, 2009 from Instructional Technology Resource Center • Website: http://www.paec.org/david/big/sssbr1.pdf. • University of South Florida. (2009). Applied Technology Standards. Retrieved November • 1, 2009 from Standards and Software Webpage: • http://etc.usf.edu/software/appliedTech.html. • University of South Florida. (1995). Visual Arts Sunshine State Standards. Retrieved • September 28, 2009 from Standards Webpage: http://etc.usf.edu/flstandards/sss/pdf/ • visarts9.pdf