Original 13 Colonies Unit One: Colonial Era
English Colonies • England developed three types of colonies in North America • Royal colony – a colony controlled by king or queen. • Proprietary colony – a colony owned by a person or family. • Corporate colony – a colony controlled by a joint stock company.
GPS SSUSH1 The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century. • a. Explain Virginia’s development; include the Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation, and relationships with Native Americans such as Powhatan, development of the House of Burgesses, Bacon’s Rebellion, and the development of slavery.
Virginia’s Development Jamestown (1607) • King James I granted the Virginia company (also known as the London Company) a charter. • Joint stock companies were the forerunners of corporations. • They established Jamestown, the first permanent English colony in North America.
The colony faced severe hardships • Location- was swampy along the James River. • They faced Indian attacks, famine, and disease. • Many were gentlemen from England with no skills • Law of Primogeniture – only the first son could inherit their father’s wealth. • Small food supplies causing colonists to nearly starve.
John Smith • Under the leadership of John Smith, the colony started to survive but John Smith left the colony because of battle injuries in 1609. • Starving time • In the winter of 1609-10, Jamestown settlers faced a harsh winter. They eat dogs, cats, and sometimes each other in order to survive. By spring, the settlers were preparing to abandon the colony when supplies and more settlers arrived. Only 63 of the original settlers survived the “starving time.”
Tobacco Cultivation • Tobacco – Cash crop • For two year, the colony barely survived until John Rolfe discovered a way to cure tobacco to make it profitable for the Virginia company. • Parliament and the Commonwealth forbade the colonist for selling their tobacco to anyone but England.
Problems with Tobacco Cultivation • Problems • Tobacco is labor intensive and there were labor shortages • Solutions • Indentured servitude • Head right system • Slavery
Development of slavery • Tobacco required a lot of labor/Problem there was a labor shortage.
In 1619, a Dutch ship presented 20 African Americans to Jamestown selling them as indentured servants – people who work for 7 to 10 years in the hopes of receiving a new start or land at the end of the contract. Development of Slavery in Jamestown
However, African were slowly placed into slavery. • In 1630 – some Africans were enslaved while others were indentured. • By 1640 – African-Americans were not allowed to carry guns. • By 1692 – blacks no longer could own horses or cattle. • By the 1700s – ½ the labor force in Jamestown was either indentured servants or slaves.
1619 – House of Burgesses • Also, the House of Burgesses was formed in Virginia in 1619. It was the first representative assembly in America.
Bacon’s Rebellion, 1676 • The first stirring of “revolutionary feeling” in the New World.
William Berkeley • Settlers of the western frontier faced attack from Native Americans and complained to the Governor William Berkeley. Berkeley ordered an investigation, but little was done.
Picture of Nathaniel Bacon Nathaniel Bacon – a farmer and landowner – was angry with his poor efforts and raised a loose army to attack largely peaceful Native American settlements.
Results of Bacon’s Rebellion • The rebellion ended when Bacon died of fever. • This showed the divisions between the poor and the rich in the colony. • Sharp class differences were exposed between wealthy planters and poor frontiers men or the landless. • Colonial resistance to royal control. Versus
Native Americans and Jamestown • England’s pattern of conquest with the Native Americans involved their relationship with Ireland. Therefore, they developed a harsh attitude towards the Native Americans.
Jamestown lost its charter • In 1624, the bankrupt Virginia Company lost its charter and Jamestown became a royal colony.
GPS SSUSH1b • Describe the settlement of New England including religious reasons, relations with Native Americans including King Philip’s War, the establishment of town meetings and development of a legislature, religious tensions that led to colonies such as Rhode Island, the half-way covenant, Salem Witch Trials, and the loss of Massachusetts charter.
Describe the settlement of New England including religious reasons Puritans • Puritans believed they had to purify the Anglican Church (Church of England) of Catholic practices • Their original colonies were Plymouth and the second was Massachusetts Bay colony. • Puritan were viewed by King James I of England as a threat to his religious and political authority. He ordered many of them jailed.
Plymouth Colony, 1620 • Those who settled the Plymouth Colony wanted to do more than purify the Anglican church from within they formed a completely separate church.
Separatists • They were also called Separatists because they separated from the Anglican Church and moved to the Netherlands before establishing Plymouth Colony in what is now Massachusetts.
Voyage of the Mayflower • Worried that their children were becoming “Dutchified” They received permission from the Virginia Company to establish a colony in America. • In 1620, a small group set sail on the Mayflower. • The ship was blown off course and landed not in Virginia but off the Massachusetts coast.
Mayflower Compact was written when the Pilgrim created and signed a document pledging they would make a decision to follow majority rule. Mayflower Compact
Separatists AKA Pilgrims. • Their first winter was difficult. Native Americans help them settle at Plymouth. • Under the leadership of Miles Standish and Governor William Bradford, the colony grew slowly.
Plymouth colony • Fish, furs, and lumber became the important parts of its economy. • The colony would eventually be overtaken by Massachusetts Bay colony.
Massachusetts Bay Colony, 1630 • In 1629, a group of English Puritan (not Separatists) gained a royal charter to establish a colony. • In 1630, they established the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded Boston and several other towns.
John Winthrop was their leader • Unlike the other colonies, their charter stated that their government would be in colonies. • A Great Migration occurred when the English Civil War (1642-1649) drove people to Massachusetts Bay Colony
England allowed its American colonies a certain degree of self-ruleMajority rule in Plymouth • Mayflower Compact • Town meeting were encouraged where all white landowning and Protestant males had a voice in politics. • Representative Governments in Massachusetts
Limitations to democracy • Only (white) male property owners could vote. • Religious restrictions were in place in many places. • Females and those that were landless had practically no rights. • Slaves and Indentured servants had no rights. • Governors often ruled with absolute power answering only to the monarch or those who paid their salary. • There was wide spread misuse of Native Americans.
Salem Witch Trials • In 1692, several young women claimed that the devil had possessed them and blamed several elderly women in the community. The trials called the Salem Witch Trials occurred to determine the women’s guilt.
Salem Witch Trials (cont.) • Twenty men and women were executed. After a few months, the people lost their excitement over the trials. However, the damage was done. • The Puritan church would suffer because of the trials.
Half-Way Covenant • To be member of the Puritan church, a person had to give a verbal testimony to an “experience of grace.” Even if you were baptized, a person had to have an experience of faith.
Those who were not members of the church, could not vote or baptize their children. Therefore the size of the church remained small. The Half-Way Covenant was offered by some preachers (clergy) to those who professed limited religious commitment.
In other words, people could take part in the church service without formally declaring their total belief in God. • Many hated this practice, but as time passed the strict Puritan ways began to weaken. Also, church size increased.
King Philip’s War • In (1675-1676), Metacom (aka King Philip) united a group of Native Americans to fight the New England settlers whose increasing population had been slowly taking their lands. • Thousands on both sides were killed. • The New Englanders won, killed King Philip, and basically ended Native American resistance in New England.
Rhode Island Roger Williams: • Believed one should not be punished for worshipping or not worshiping. • Help to found Providence, RI
New England: Led to colonies such as Rhode Island Anne Hutchinson: • One does not need a minister or church to talk to God. • Help to found Rhode Island.
New England Colonies:The loss of the Massachusetts charter. • Charter-document granting an area/group specific rights; laws
Loss of Charter: Cont. The British King took the charter away • Massachusetts – losses its independent colony. • Reason: to gain more control over trade. Combined all of New England colonies into one territory. Colonist did not like the loss of their charter.
c. Explain the development of the mid-Atlantic colonies; include the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam and subsequent English takeover, and the settlement of Pennsylvania.
Explain the development of the mid-Atlantic colonies • The Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam and subsequent English takeover • The Dutch controlled New Netherlands (today New York) • New York City was called New Amsterdam (Amsterdam is the capital of the Netherlands.) • Owners: Dutch, then French, then English aka British. • The Dutch accepted diversity (other religions)
Mid-Atlantic Colonies: Pennsylvania • Pennsylvania
Founded by William Penn, a wealthy Quaker • A Quaker AKA Society of Friends • They were Protestants who believed that men and women were equal in God’s eyes • Later, many will become abolitionists.
Analyze the impact of location and place for the southern, middle, and New England colonies regarding their colonies settlement, transportation, economic development Southern colonies • Virginia, 1607 • Maryland, 1636 • North Carolina, • South Carolina, • Georgia, 1733 • Geography • Long growing seasons • Good harbors • Accessible rivers • Economy • Depended on cash crop/stable crop
Southern colonies: Virginia • Virginia, 1607 • 1st permanent English colony in North American • Business venture by Virginia Company • Poor relations with Native Americans/Powhatan • Economic • Tobacco