Settlement & Foundation of the Original 13 Colonies - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Settlement & Foundation of the Original 13 Colonies
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Settlement & Foundation of the Original 13 Colonies

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  1. Settlement & Foundation of the Original 13 Colonies

  2. Discovery • Columbus found “America” in 1492 • Various expeditions afterwards with European nations • Trying to find and claim land

  3. British Colonies in North America • Roanoke Colony • 1585 – 1st Attempt -Settlers starved & abandoned to go back to England • 1587 – 2nd Attempt -1590 Supply crew returned & found deserted colony -CROATOAN carved on tree -Lost Colony **Both present-day North Carolina

  4. Jamestown • Present-day Virginia • 1st successful colony in North America • Permanent • John Rolfe saved the colony by learning to plant & export tobacco.

  5. Colonial Regions • New England • Middle Colonies • Southern

  6. New England Colonies • Massachusetts • New Hampshire • Connecticut • Rhode Island

  7. Plymouth Colony • 1st successful colony in New England • Founded by Puritans who wanted a purer church • Were persecuted in Europe

  8. Massachusetts Bay Colony • Very close to Plymouth • Everyone had to be Puritan • No religious tolerance • Would merge w/ Plymouth colony to form Massachusetts colony

  9. Salem Witch Trials • 1692 Salem, Mass. • Teenage girls accused several older women of being witches • 20 men & women were executed • Religious fervor

  10. Other New England Colonies • Rhode Island: Roger Williams founded for religious freedom • Connecticut: Thomas Hooker also for religious freedom • Religious Dissent • Split from other colonies for REAL religious freedom • Joint-Stock Companies: Got charters from the King to found & govern the colony. • Made money

  11. Economy of New England Colonies • Small farms, now slaves • Lots of towns & big cities • Depended on trade with Europe • Boston was biggest city w/ great harbor • Fishing & shipbuilding

  12. Middle Colonies • New York • New Jersey • Delaware • Pennsylvania • Proprietary Colony • Granted by King or Queen to group or person • Could make laws & rules as they wished

  13. Pennsylvania • William Penn as a haven for Quakers • Religious toleration

  14. Economy of Middle Colonies • Mixture of farming & commerce/trade • New York City & Philadelphia were biggest cities in all of North America

  15. Southern Colonies • Virginia • Maryland • North Carolina • South Carolina • Georgia

  16. Maryland • Haven for Catholics by Lord Baltimore • Maryland Toleration Act: Protect Catholics from religious persecution b/c so many Puritans moved there

  17. Georgia • Founded for debtors from England as 2nd chance by James Oglethorpe • No alcohol

  18. Economy of Southern Colonies • Plantation System • Cash crops grown for profit • VA & NC = Tobacco • Virginia Company • Joint-stock company • SC & GA = Rice • 40% of population were slaves • SC had more slaves that citizens

  19. Middle Passage • Triangular Trade • Route between Africa, Americas & Europe • Slave ships • 1450-1850, 12 million Africans exported from Africa on Slave ships

  20. Rights in New Colonies • Land Ownership • Colonists thought land should be owned & used • Native Americans thought land should be shared & conserved • Other Rights • Women: 2nd class citizens; could NOT vote or own land • Slaves: NO rights; considered property • Native Americans: NO rights; not citizens • Indentured Servants • Voyage to colonies was paid in exchange for a period of ‘indenture’ • Promise to work for person for a specific period of time • 7 years

  21. Roots of American Democracy

  22. Magna Carta • 1215 • Guaranteed: • Equal treatment under the law for nobles • Trial by jury of peers • Even King is subject to laws

  23. British Parliament (1264) • 1st English legislature • Representatives made laws • By 1300s Parliament was running day-to-day functions of British gov’t • Not the King

  24. English Bill of Rights - 1689 • Parliament wrote list of basic rights for all English people • Limited the King’s power • Parliament had to approve some things before the King could do them

  25. Glorious Revolution – 1688 • Peaceful transfer of power in England • Parliament gave King James the boot & gave power to his daughter • Mary & hubby William • Agreed to rule w/ Parliament

  26. Common Law • Laws developed by judges through court decisions • Precedent: When judges use rulings from previous cases to rule of current case • Court rules the same way to resolve similar cases • Over time, written laws develop

  27. Using English ideas of Government in American Colonies

  28. VA House of Burgesses 1619 • Beginning of self-government in colonies • Established 1st representative-democracy in colonies • 2 representatives from each county meet w/ Kings appointed leaders

  29. Mayflower Compact • Pilgrims written plan for government • Established Direct Democracy • Each person get 1 vote • Majority rule

  30. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut • 1st written constitution in colonies • Representative government • Rights of the Individual • All free men can vote • Secret, paper ballot • Limited gov’t

  31. Social Contract Theory • John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau • Relationship b/t people & government • Consent of the governed • People agree to unite into groups & agree to follow laws & accept duties • Live peacefully together • Gov’t provides protection & services

  32. Town Meetings • Direct Democracy • Locals meet to make rules, decisions or budgets

  33. Bacon’s Rebellion • Revolt in Virginia led by Nathaniel Bacon • High taxes, low tobacco prices, favoritism to rich • Royal governor didn’t protect people against Indian attacks • Bacon took over the capital -Jamestown

  34. Albany Plan of Union • Ben Franklin • Proposed forming a “union” of the colonies “under 1 government” • Mostly for defense • Presidential General would oversee the Union

  35. Different Ideas About Self-Government • Majority Rule • Self-government • Limited Government • Rebellion

  36. Majority Rule • 51% of vote • Basis for Democracy

  37. Natural Rights • Idea that every citizen has the guarantee to certain rights

  38. Self-Government • People govern themselves • Mostly by voting • Direct Democracy • Representative Democracy

  39. Limited Government • Powers of government are limited by a governing document • ‘Limited for Liberty’

  40. Rebellion • Uprising or insurrection against an established government

  41. Causes for American Independence & Revolution

  42. French & Indian War • War between Britain & the Indians • France sided w/ the Indians • Cause: The colonists kept pushing the Indians west. • Effect: The British made the Proclamation of 1763.

  43. Proclamation of 1763 • Britain said colonists can’t move west of Appalachian mountains • Cause: England was still in debt from the French and Indian War and didn’t want to start another war. • Effect: The colonist still moved west anyway because owning land was important (you needed it to be able to vote

  44. The Stamp Act • The Stamp Act was a tax on every sheet of every legal document. • Cause: Britain needed money because they were in debt from the war so they taxed the colonists. • Effect: The colonists boycotted British goods. They also organized the Sons of Liberty and the Daughters of Liberty

  45. Mercantilism • British economic policy • Idea to EXPORT MORE THAN YOU IMPORT • Took advantage of the raw materials that were available in the colonies • Shipped them all over the world • Made Britain LOTS of money! • That’s the point!

  46. Stamp Act Congress • Convened in response to the Stamp Act • Wrote & Issued the Declaration of Rights & Grievances • Listed colonial complaints about British Parliament • Britain laughed it off • Convinced colonists to BOYCOTT British items

  47. No Taxation Without Representation!!!! • Colonists main argument against Britain • Said British Parliament can’t tax colonists b/c they did not allow colonial representation in Parliament • Colonists were being taxed but had no say in the taxation.

  48. Declaratory Act • Britain issued in response to Boycott • Declared Parliament’s power is exactly the same in the colonies as in Britain

  49. Navigation Acts • Forced colonies to ship all exports on British ships • And only sell products to Great Britain • Part of policy of Mercantilism