The Three Regions • New England • Middle Colonies • Southern Colonies
The New England Colonies
The New England Colonies New Hampshire Massachusetts Connecticut Rhode Island Which colonies were the New England colonies? Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Connecticut
New England Colonies: Geography and Climate Positives • Good, large harbors on the Atlantic Ocean. • Lots of forest • Hot summers Negatives • Poor, rocky soil not good for farming • Rough, swift rivers • Cold winters
What was the economy of the New England Colonies? The New England colonies were free market. This means the colonists were able to choose what crops they grew or what products they made. Popular industries were whaling, fishing, shipbuilding, trading, and forestry. Farming was also important, but colonists had small farms. The colonists mostly grew for themselves to trade with few people.
Products and crops of the New England colonies • Livestock • Grains • Wool • Fruits • Firewood and lumber • Fish • Whale oil • Fur
Government of New England Colonies • Towns held town meetings at least once a year. • Only white, landowning men could vote. • Mayflower Compact • The KING of ENGLAND still ruled over all the colonies!!!
Who lived there? • Families- men, women, children • Slaves • Indentured Servants • Artisans, apprentices, merchants, manufacturers • The Puritans and Pilgrims were the first to settle here. • What are indentured servants? The cost of coming to the colonies was great. Many people sold themselves to be indentured servants. Someone would pay for them to come to the colonies and in return, they would work for 7 years.
The Middle Colonies
What colonies were the Middle Colonies? • Pennsylvania • New Jersey • New York • Delaware New York Pennsylvania New Jersey Delaware
Middle Colonies: Geography and Climate Geography: • Flat plains, rolling hills, and forests • Large harbors on Atlantic Ocean • Many lakes and rivers for transportation Climate: • Medium growing season • Mild summers and cold winters
Economy of Middle Colonies • Farming • Seaports • Forestry • Homespun products • Known as the “Breadbasket” colonies
Products and Crops of the Middle Colonies • Farmed wheat, barley, oats, and rye • Corn • Dairy cows and pigs • Import and export from the harbors • Furs
Government of the Middle Colonies • Religious freedom and tolerance • Proprietary charters • Town meetings • Strong courts
People of the Middle Colonies • People from England, Netherlands, France, Germany, and others • Puritans, Quakers, Anglicans, Catholics, and Jews • Middle Colonies founded for religious freedom • Jobs and People: • Farmers • Artisans • Slaves • Families
The Southern Colonies Maryland Virginia North Carolina South Carolina Georgia Which colonies were the Southern Colonies? Maryland Virginia North Carolina South Carolina Georgia
Geography and Climate of the Southern Colonies • Geography • Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains • Fertile Soil • Harbors on the Atlantic and large rivers • Climate • Long growing season • Warm year round • Wet!!
Southern Colonies and Economy • Cash crops: Crops sold for money • Trade and exporting • Purchased manufactured goods What are plantations? In the Southern Colonies, the farms were called plantations. A plantation is a large farm where crops are grown.
Products and Crops in the Southern Colonies • Main cash crops were indigo, tobacco, cotton, rice • Lumber
Government of the Southern Colonies House of Burgesses Joint-Stock and Proprietary Charters: Colonies run for a profit
Who lived in the Southern Colonies? Anglicans, English Plantation Owners, Indentured Servants, Transported Criminals, and Slaves
The Colony of Georgia The colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe in 1733. He secured land from Tomochichi and the Creek Native Americans and settle in what is now Savannah.
Why was Georgia founded? Georgia was founded to give debtors from England a place to start over. It also served as a buffer between the other colonies and Spanish territory. http://cdm.sos.state.ga.us/index.php Click on website to go to Virtual Vault and look up the charter of Georgia.
Colonial Regions Vocabulary • Merchant: A person who produces or trades goods. • Subsistence Farming: When a family grows only enough food to survive. • Homespun: Products that are made at home (furniture, clothing, etc.) • Cash Crops: Crops that are grown in large amounts and sold for a profit.
More Vocabulary • Indentured Servants: People who are brought to the colonies and must work to pay off the trip. • Transported Criminals: Criminals that are taken from jail and made to work in the colonies. • Slaves: People captured in Africa and sold to plantation owners. The plantation owner saw them as property.