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Latin Loans. Latin Loans. into Germanic into Old English into Middle English into Early Modern English. Indo-European k – p - r. Grimm's Law. Germanic h – f - r. Latin cuprum. Latin Loans: dating. Latin cuprum , OE copor , Engl. copper How do we know this is a loanword?.

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latin loans4
Latin Loans
  • into Germanic
  • into Old English
  • into Middle English
  • into Early Modern English
slide6

Indo-European

k – p - r

Grimm's

Law

Germanic

h – f - r

Latin

cuprum

Latin Loans: dating

Latin cuprum, OE copor, Engl. copper

How do we know this is a loanword?

slide7

Latin Loans: dating

Latin cuprum, OE copor, Engl. copper

How do we know this is a loanword into early Germanic?

slide8

Latin Loans: dating

Latin cuprum, OE copor, Engl. copper

How do we know this is a loanword into early Germanic?

Latin in Gaul changed -pr- to -vr- in 7th cent. - Modern French cuivre

So it must have come into Germanic earlier than the 7th cent.

slide10

1. Latin Loans: into Germanic

vowel mutation, umlaut, hljóðvarp

u – mutation:

dagur-dögum, krati krötum, land lönd

i-mutation:

dagur degi, fótur fæti

slide11

1. Latin Loans: into Germanic

vowel mutation, umlaut, hljóðvarp

Do not confuse with:

vowel gradation, ablaut, hljóðskipti

sing sang song

bjóða beið buðum boðið

slide12

1. Latin Loans: into Germanic

vowel mutation, umlaut, hljóðvarp

i-mutation occurred before the earliest extant records of OE in 6th cent.

words that underwent this change must have arrived in English before that date.

slide15

1. Latin Loans: into Germanic

breaking

a → ea / ___ rC, lC, h

“a becomes ea before

r+consonant, l+consonant, and h”

half > healf

early in the OE period (before records)

slide17

1. Latin Loans: into Germanic

Compare with later loans:

slide18

1. Latin Loans: into Germanic

For more words from this period:

Baugh §58 p. 79

“Continental Borrowing (Latin Influences of the Zero Period)”

slide20

i-mutation

breaking

slide21

OE period

2. Latin Loans: into Old English

Latin loans which do not show i-mutation or breaking must have entered the language after the 6th century.

Germanic

Before the OE period

slide23

Before or during the OE period?

LATIN

moneta

cometa

OLD ENGLISH

mynet

comet

i-mutation

slide24

Before or during the OE period?

LATIN

coquina

cōcus

OLD ENGLISH

cycene

cóc

i-mutation

?

?

2 latin loans into old english
2. Latin Loans: into Old English
  • Baugh §59 p. 81

Latin through Celtic (Latin Influence of the First Period)

2 latin loans into old english28
2. Latin Loans: into Old English
  • Baugh §60-62 p. 82-87

Latin Influence of the Second Period: the Christianizing of Britain

2 latin loans into old english29
2. Latin Loans: into Old English
  • Baugh §63-5 p. 87-91

Later borrowings: Christianity, science

apostle cantor prophet

history paper term

cucumber ginger cyprus fig laurel

cancer plaster

3 latin loans into middle english
3. Latin Loans: into Middle English
  • This process continues in Middle English as science and technology progresses.
  • Both French and English took learned words from Latin; it is not always possible to say whether a loan into English comes through French or straight from Latin.
3 latin loans into middle english33
3. Latin Loans: into Middle English
  • Baugh § 142 p.184 “Latin Borrowings in Middle English”

adjacent frustrate genius incredible index interrupt quiet solitary suppress testimony

3 latin loans into middle english34
3. Latin Loans: into Middle English
  • § 143 p.185 “Aureate Terms”

conscious introduction of ornate and unusual words which have since died out:

abusion dispone diurne

- although some have been retained

mediation oriental

3 latin loans into middle english35
3. Latin Loans: into Middle English
  • § 144 p.186 “Synonyms on three levels”

fire – flame – conflagration

time – age - epoch

      • Saxon – “strong, simple, direct”
      • French – stylistic
      • Latin – learned, bookish

Baugh points out that large numbers of French words are no less robust and powerful than English ones, and that this distinction is to some extent based on prejudice

slide37

Baugh 144 continued –

ignore the many hundreds of words from French which are equally simple and as capable of conveying a vivid image, idea, or emotion-nouns like bar, beak, cell, cry, fool, frown, fury, glory, guile, gullet, horror, humor, isle, pity, river, rock, ruin, stain, stuff, touch, wreck, or adjectives such as calm, clear, cruel, eager, fierce, gay, mean, rude, safe, tender, to take examples almost at random. The truth is that many of the most vivid and forceful words in English are French, and even where the French and Latin words are more literary or learned, as indeed they often are, they are no less valuable and important.

slide38

continued ..

The richness of English in synonyms is largely due to the happy mingling of Latin, French, and native elements. It has been said that we have a synonym at each level-popular, literary, and learned. Although this statement must not be pressed too hard, a difference is often apparent, as in rise-mount­ascend, ask-question-interrogate, goodness-virtue-probity, fast-firm­secure, fire-flame-conflagration, fear-terror-trepidation, holy-sacred­consecrated, time-age-epoch. In each of these sets of three words the first is English, the second is from French, and the third from Latin. The difference in tone between the English and the French words is often slight; the Latin word is generally more bookish. However, it is more important to recognize the distinctive uses of each than to form prejudices in favor of one group above another.

4 latin loans into early modern english
4. Latin Loans: into Early Modern English
  • The beginning of the end for Latin as a scientific language.
  • Number of Latin loans increases as the use of Latin as a written language begins to decline

(cf French loanwords)

4 latin loans into early modern english42
4. Latin Loans: into Early Modern English
  • Shakespeare’s 20 years in London

Effectual effectuous effectful effectuating effective

    • Many of the words objected to have now become common
    • Often different meanings when first introduced

expect (wait) enlargement (freedom) humorous (wet, damp)

4 latin loans into early modern english45
4. Latin Loans: into Early Modern English
  • “Inkhorn terms” § 158 p. 217
slide46

Baugh § 158 p.217

Sir John Cheke, 1561

4 latin loans into early modern english51
4. Latin Loans: into Early Modern English
  • “Inkhorn terms” § 158 p. 217
    • read particularlythe quote frm Thomas Wilson’s Arte of Rhetorique on p.218
    • and the next 2 sections, § 159 The Defense of Borrowing and § 160 Compromise.